Foot and mouth disease is a viral infection with specific lesions of the mucous membrane of the mouth, lips, nose, skin, in the interdigital folds and at the nail bed. The causative agent is a filterable RNA containing a spherical virus. Well preserved in the environment. Artiodactyl animals (large and small cattle, pigs, sheep and goats) are ill with foot-and-mouth disease. In sick animals, the virus is shed in saliva, milk, urine, and manure. Human susceptibility to the lizard is low. Ways of transmission contact and food. The disease is not transmitted from person to person.
Symptoms and course of foot and mouth disease. The incubation period is 5-10 days. The disease begins with chills, high fever, headache, aching muscles, lower back, weakness, loss of appetite. After 2-3 days, dry mouth joins, photophobia, salivation, and pain during urination are possible. On the reddened mucous membrane of the oral cavity, a large number of small bubbles the size of millet grains filled with a hazy yellow liquid appear, after a day they spontaneously burst and form ulcers (aphthae). After opening the aft, the temperature, as a rule, decreases somewhat. Speech and swallowing are difficult, salivation (saliva) is increased. In most patients, vesicles – vesicles can be located on the skin: in the area of \u200b\u200bthe terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, in the interdigital folds. Accompanied by a burning sensation, crawling, itching. In most cases, the nails then fall out. Aphthae on the mucous membrane of the mouth, lips, tongue disappear after 3-5 days and heal without leaving scars. New rashes are possible, delaying recovery for several months. In babies, gastroenteritis is not often observed.
There are skin, mucous and mucocutaneous forms of the disease. Erased forms that occur in the form of stomatitis are not uncommon.
There is no etiotropic therapy. Particular attention is paid to careful patient care, diet (liquid food, fractional nutrition). Local treatment: solutions – 3% hydrogen peroxide; 0.1% rivanol; 0.1% potassium permanganate; 2% boric acid, chamomile infusion. Erosions are extinguished with a 2-5% solution of silver nitrate. In severe cases, the introduction of immune serum and the appointment of tetracycline or chloramphenicol are recommended.