Vegetative-vascular dystonia is a violation of the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which performs two main functions in the body:
- preserves and maintains the constancy of the internal environment of the body (body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, perspiration, metabolic rate, etc.)
- mobilizes the functional systems of the body to adapt (adapt) to changing environmental conditions (physical and mental work, stress, weather changes, climate, etc..)
Autonomic disorders are among the most common. In the population, vegetative-vascular dystonia occurs in 80% of cases. One 30% of them require treatment and observation by a neurologist.
The first manifestations may occur in childhood or adolescence. Severe disorders are usually detected at a young age (20-40 years). In women, vegetative-vascular dystonia is three times more common than in men.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia develops under the influence of various factors:
- under the influence of emotional stress;
- during periods of hormonal changes in the body (puberty, pregnancy, menopause)
- when changing climatic zones;
- with physical, mental and emotional overload;
- with exacerbation of neurological and somatic or endocrine diseases;
- with neurotic disorders.
It should be noted that there is a hereditary predisposition to the development of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia are associated with a violation of the controlling functions of the autonomic nervous system in one or several body systems at once:
- in the cardiovascular system: fluctuations in blood pressure from hyper- to hypotension, violation of the heart rate (most often it is its increase – tachycardia), pain in the left half of the chest (cardialgia);
- in the respiratory system: a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath, choking, shortness of breath, rapid breathing and forced breathing (hyperventilation syndrome)
- in the gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, flatulence, heartburn, belching, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain;
- in the thermoregulatory system: low-grade fever, chills, high sweating, heat and cold waves;
- in the vestibular system: non-systemic dizziness, pre-syncope;
- in the genitourinary system: frequent urination, itching and pain in the genital area;
- with vegetative-vascular dystonia, vegetative disorders are necessarily combined with emotional disorders: anxiety, anxiety, high irritability, fatigue, reduced performance, internal stress, reduced mood, tearfulness, sleep and appetite disorders, all kinds of fears.
- if vegetative symptoms disrupt your daily life, force you to abandon your usual lifestyle;
- if you are in constant internal tension and listen to all the unpleasant sensations;
- if vegetative-vascular dystonia takes on the character of panic attacks or fainting;
- if unpleasant symptoms increase every day and new unpleasant sensations join.
At the beginning, somatic, neurological and endocrine diseases are excluded (consultation of a neurologist, if necessary, an endocrinologist and a therapist).
The system in which there are autonomic disorders is used (ECG, daily monitoring of blood pressure, autonomic tests, EEG, ultrasound, TCD, hormonal profile)
Vegetative-vascular dystonia is effectively treated.
Vegetotropic, vascular, nootropic and psychotropic products (antidepressants, tranquilizers) are used; psychotherapy, massage, acupuncture, physiotherapy, phototherapy, hydromassage baths, spa treatment. Special complexes of vitamins and minerals are also used, aimed at stabilizing increased nervous excitability. The main course of treatment, as a rule, takes from 4 to 6 months, depending on the severity of the disorders. In some cases, courses of maintenance therapy are carried out for 2-4 months.
Extremely widespread self-treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia. Patients independently take all kinds of tranquilizers or sedatives. They often become addictive, but the proper effect does not begin. All therapeutic measures and the selection of drugs should be controlled by the attending physician.