Indications for use:
Monotherapy (treatment with one product /zalcitabine/) of HIV infection, in the absence of the effect of the use of zidovudine. Combination therapy with zidovudine in previously infected with AIDS.
Zaliiitabin is a synthetic nucleoside analogue of the natural nucleoside 2-deoxycytidine, which has an antiviral effect. Under the influence of cellular enzymes, zalcitabine inside the cell is converted into an active metabolite (metabolic product) dideoxycytidine-5-triphosphate, which exhibits a competitive effect on human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) transcriptase and inhibits viral DNA replication (a complex intracellular mechanism of DNA division / deoxyribonucleic acid / consequence which is the reproduction of viruses). Zalcitabine crosses the blood-brain barrier (the barrier between blood and brain tissue).
Zalcitabin (Zalcitabine) method of administration and dose:
Before prescribing a product to a patient, it is desirable to determine the susceptibility of the microflora to it that caused the disease in this patient. For monotherapy, adults are prescribed 0.75 mg every 8 hours. When conducting combination therapy, 0.75 mg of zalcitabine and 200 mg of zidovudine are prescribed 3 times a day. If side effects occur, it is necessary to stop one of the products and reduce the dose of the other product.
Eating reduces the absorption of the product.
With the development of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (disease of the peripheral nervous system), treatment should be discontinued until they are eliminated and, if necessary, subsequently, the product should be prescribed at half the dose. In the process of treatment, it is necessary to monitor the neurological status, biochemical blood parameters (in particular, amylase), and complete blood count.
Zalcitabin (Zalcitabine) contraindications: Hypersensitivity
to the product.
With caution, the product is prescribed to patients with pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), chronic heart failure, cardiomyopathy (heart disease of an unclear or controversial origin of a non-inflammatory nature), impaired renal and liver function. It is not recommended to simultaneously prescribe zalcitabine and products that can cause peripheral neuropathy: levomycetin, cisplatin, diaphenylsulfone, ethionamide, isoniazid, apressin, gold products, metronidazole, nitrofuran products, diphenin, vincristine, amphotericin.
Zalcitabin (Zalcitabine) side effects:
Nausea, dysphagia (swallowing disorder), loss of appetite, dyspeptic disorders (digestive disorders), ulceration in the mucosa of the esophagus and oral cavity, ulcerogenic (ulcer-causing) effect. Peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) may develop, requiring the withdrawal of the drug; skin rashes, myalgia (muscle pain), arthralgia (joint pain), pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), general malaise and fever (a sudden increase in body temperature). In rare cases, changes in the cardiovascular system (increased heart rate, heart rhythm disturbances, increased blood pressure, etc.), liver and kidney dysfunction, gout, disorders of the central nervous system, mental changes, changes in taste, visual impairment .