Perennial shrub plant 30-40 cm tall. The root is almost horizontal, branched. The stem is round, branched, brown, with faceted green branches. The leaves are alternate, rounded-ovate, simple, short-petiolate, serrated. The flowers are small, bisexual, pink, drooping, on short pedicels, sessile in the axils of the leaves, singly. The fruit is a black (with a bluish bloom) spherical berry with several seeds. Blooms in May-June. The fruits ripen in July-August.
Blueberries grow in spruce and pine (rarely) forests, swamps in the forest zone.
Medicinal raw materials are the fruits collected during the period of full maturation, and the leaves – during the flowering period. Drying of fruits is carried out in ovens or dryers at a temperature of 50-70 ° C after preliminary air drying. Blueberries contain from 5 to 20% cane sugar, within 7% of tannins of the pyrocatechol group, pectin substances, lemon, apple, milk, oxalic, quinic and succinic acids, red-violet antocide pigment, vitamin C.
Leaves contain glycosides neomyrtillin, myrtillin; small amounts of ericoline (arbutin); 18-20% tannins, ceryl alcohol, essential oil, organic acids, vitamin C.
The smell of dried fruits is weak, the taste is sour-sweet, slightly astringent.
Due to the significant content of tannins, blueberries have strong astringent properties and are widely used as astringents for acute and chronic diarrhea, especially in babies, upper respiratory tract catarrhs, tonsillitis, acute and chronic enterocolitis, putrefactive fermentation in the intestines (especially in babies), diarrhea, mild forms of diabetes. The fruits are used in the form of infusion, extract, syrup and decoction. There are indications for the treatment of catarrhal and follicular tonsillitis, burns, aphthous stomatitis, etc. with a decoction of blueberries. They are applied externally as compresses for hemorrhoids.
Bilberry leaves, due to their content of myrtillin, which causes a decrease in sugar in urine and blood, have become recommended for the treatment of diabetes.
In folk medicine, blueberries are the most popular remedy. Berries, especially fresh, regulate intestinal motility. They are used as an astringent and diuretic, for diarrhea, catarrh of the intestines and stomach with low acidity, kidney stones, anemia, bedwetting, gout, rheumatism, bleeding, constipation, inflammation of the mouth and throat and scaly deprivation.
With kidney stone disease, they drink a decoction of berries and make baths from a decoction of oat straw and horsetail in half (50 g per bucket of boiling water).
People often recommend using fresh berries for gastric catarrh, chronic constipation, rheumatism and gout, and dried berries in the form of a decoction prepared from them for intestinal catarrh, it is good to combine the use of fresh blueberries mixed with strawberries (throughout the entire strawberry period – 3 weeks) for patients with chronic intestinal disorders, stomach diseases with low acidity and anemia.
Strawberries and blueberries in a mixture and separately are recommended for use in kidney stones. Good results have been noted with the use of large quantities of fresh blueberries for gout, rheumatism, and impaired metabolism. Compresses are made from a decoction of blueberries, enemas are given for hemorrhoid bleeding. Blueberries are used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, eye-improving and vitamin remedy.
Outwardly, for the treatment of eczema, skin rashes, aphthous stomatitis, burns, even with tissue necrosis, a decoction of blueberries or an ointment is made (preferably if the fruits are fresh).
A decoction of blueberry leaves (60 g per 1 liter of boiling water) acts on the body like insulin, it helps a lot with sugar disease (diabetes), kidney and bladder diseases, stomach cramps, dropsy, female diseases (uterine bleeding, etc.). A decoction of the leaves is also used for colds, asthma, venereal diseases, rheumatism, liver diseases, as a blood purifier, and sometimes for gallstones. Give to drink to cattle with bloody urine.
Infusion or decoction of berries: 1-2 teaspoons of crushed berries per cup of boiling water; take 2-3 tbsp. spoons 3 times every day; can be drunk as tea, without dosage, preferably with pure bee honey.
Mixture: 1 kg of fruit per 1200 g of sugar, or preferably 500 g of pure bee honey; take 30-40 g 2 times every day.
Infusion for enemas: 60 g of blueberry leaves per 1 liter of boiling water.
Ointment: boiled berries (preferably fresh) are crushed, rubbed so that they turn into an ointment, and applied in a thick layer to the affected areas. Change the ointment every day, wash it with pure serum.
A mixture for severe bleeding: blueberries – 30 g, chestnut bark (crushed) – 10 g, gum arabic – 20 g, white yasnitka – 20 g, water – 1 liter. Cook the mixture for 10 minutes in a glass or porcelain bowl. Take 120 ml every day.
Infusion: 2-3 tbsp. spoons of crushed leaves insist 2-3 hours in 2 cups of boiling water, filter and drink 1/4-1/2 cup 3-4 times every day before meals.