Ophrys coma-bearing – ophrys fly-bearing

Perennial herbaceous plant of the cycad family (orchids). Tubers are spherical or elliptical. The stem is simple, 20-35 cm tall, with 2-5 leaves in the lower part. Leaves are elongated-lanceolate or elongated, sharp or obtuse; bluish-green; the upper one is folded around the stem in the form of a sheath. Flowers are bisexual, irregular, six-parted, collected in a sparse, 2-10-flowered spike; perianth leaves diverge, the outer ones are elongated-ovate, light green, with three veins, the inner lateral ones are much shorter, linear, with bent back edges, with one vein, finely pubescent, red-brown. Lip without a spur, more or less convex, elongated obovate, three-lobed, with two small lateral lobes and an average larger lobe, notched at the end, purplish-brown, velvety, with a square bluish bare spot in the middle. The fruit is a box.

Distribution . Ophrys makhonosna is a rare and disappearing plant. It occurs very rarely in the Carpathian Mountains in light forests, on shrubs, on mountain slopes, mainly on calcareous soil. Listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.

Procurement and storage . Harvesting in places of growth is strictly prohibited. For medicinal purposes, the tuberous roots grown on the plantation are used, which are collected immediately after the flowering of the plant. Only young, daughter tubers are harvested, old tubers are thrown away. The collected tubers are washed well, for 4-5 minutes. immersed in boiling water, and then dried in the open air, under a tent or in a dryer at a temperature of 50-55°. The raw material obtained in this way is called “Salep potatoes” (Tubera Salep). 1 kg of dry tubers is obtained from 10 kg of raw tubers. Store in non-moist, well-ventilated rooms. The shelf life is 6 years. Pharmacies do not release sales.

Chemical composition . Tuberous roots contain mucilage (up to 50%), starch (up to 27%), dextrin, pentosans, sucrose, etc.

Pharmacological properties and use. Salep is a good enveloping, anti-inflammatory and general strengthening agent. It prevents the absorption of harmful substances from the gastrointestinal tract. As an enveloping and anti-inflammatory agent, salep is prescribed for acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The use of salep is effective for bronchitis, gastroenteritis, colitis and peptic ulcer disease. Salep mucus is drunk in case of poisoning to delay the absorption of the poison. Used in the form of mucus orally and in enemas. Salep is considered an effective remedy for general exhaustion of the body caused by prolonged bleeding, physical and mental fatigue, tuberculosis, and impotence. The powder of the old tubers was considered an abortifacient and contraceptive, as well as a means to regulate menstruation. The infusion of the grass was fondly considered a diuretic, diaphoretic and hypotensive agent. The seeds were used in epilepsy.

Medicinal forms and applications . Mucilage (Mucilago Salepi) – 2 g of salep powder is scalded with 200 ml of boiling water, shaken for 10-15 minutes. and take 1 teaspoon or dessert spoon 2-3 times a day. Prepared slime is stored in the refrigerator.

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