Common apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.)

Apricot is a small tree from 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk diameter of up to 40 cm. The leaves are oval, 5-9 cm long and 4-8 cm wide, with a rounded base, a sharp tip and serrated edges. Flowers with a diameter of 2 to 4.5 cm, consist of five pinkish-white petals; they are arranged singly or in pairs and are found in early spring before the leaves. The fruits are similar to a small peach, 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter (but larger in some cultivated varieties of this plant), lemon yellow to bright orange in color, sometimes with a reddish tint on the side of the fruit that is closer to the sun, the surface of the fruit is traditionally rough . Inside the fruit is one large bone with a smooth surface.


The apricot was first developed in China around 3000 BC. In Armenia, apricot has been known since ancient times and thanks to it it became known throughout Europe, hence its botanical name Armeniaca .. More than 20 varieties of apricots are known, propagated by seeds and grafting. Apricot is also called yellow plum, morel, dried apricots. Central Asian varieties of apricots with a high sugar content are called apricots (Turkic-speaking peoples call all varieties of apricots so). Apricot apricot varieties are thermophilic and traditionally freeze in Russia. In the North Caucasus and Moldova, wild apricots are called zherdela (zherdely) or zarzary. Zherdela freely hybridizes with varietal apricots, has increased winter hardiness, the stone has an oblong shape (like a plum) and in mature fruits it is freely separated from the pulp, the fruit is less sweet. The bones of the zherdelya are bitter in taste, they are not recommended to be eaten – there have been cases of poisoning. A special species is the Daursat or Siberian apricot, Prunus Sibirica L.,

Used for diseases:

anemia, hypovitaminosis, beriberi, cardiovascular diseases.

Contains active substances:

ascorbic acid, vitamin B, P, provitamin A, iron, silver, carotene, sugar, inulin, large citric and tartaric acid flavonoids of quercetin, isoquercitrin, lycopene, tannins, starch, amygdalin glycoside

Chemical composition of fruits:

In fresh apricot fruits, it is within 305 mg% of potassium salts (in dried fruits – 5-6 times more). Therefore, apricots are recommended for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system and kidneys. There are also minerals – potassium, magnesium, phosphorus. Trace elements are represented by iron salts (2.1 mg%) and iodine compounds, which are especially abundant in Armenian varieties of apricots. However, for the treatment and prevention of beriberi and hypovitaminosis of vitamin A in liver diseases and a decrease in thyroid function, apricots should not be taken, since the provitamin A contained in apricots is not absorbed in these diseases, and therefore it is more advisable to take pure vitamin A. Of the other substances present in apricots pectin, which has the ability to remove toxic metabolic products and cholesterol from the body. There are tannins in apricots, giving fruits some astringency and astringent taste and fixing properties. Apricot juice has antibiotic activity, in particular, it has a depressing effect on putrefactive bacteria. Apricot kernels contain from 35 to 60% of non-drying fatty oil, similar in chemical composition to peach. Apricot oil has low acidity and low viscosity, it is used in medicine and cosmetics. Apricot seeds also contain amygdalin glycoside, emulsin enzymes, lactose and hydrocyanic acid. Apricot oil has low acidity and low viscosity, it is used in medicine and cosmetics. Apricot seeds also contain amygdalin glycoside, emulsin enzymes, lactose and hydrocyanic acid. Apricot oil has low acidity and low viscosity, it is used in medicine and cosmetics. Apricot seeds also contain amygdalin glycoside, emulsin enzymes, lactose and hydrocyanic acid.

Medicinal use:

Both fruits and seeds of apricots have medicinal properties. Harvesting is traditionally done in July-August. apricot fruitFruits stimulate hematopoiesis, are an effective remedy for anemia. It has been established that 100 g of apricots stimulate blood formation in the same way as 40 g of iron or 250 g of raw liver. Due to the presence of significant amounts of vitamins (especially provitamin A – carotene), apricots are recommended for the prevention and treatment of hypo- and beriberi, especially in children. Due to the high content of potassium, apricots are widely used in therapeutic diets for patients with cardiovascular diseases. According to Indian and Pakistani researchers, eating apricots and their processed products helps prolong life. Observation of the nutrition of the inhabitants of the Indian Hunza Valley in the Himalayas, where the average life expectancy is 85 – 90 years, showed that apricot occupies the main place among all food products. Apparently it is no coincidence that they say: “And your wife will not go to a country where apricots do not grow.” Apricot seeds are used to produce fatty oil used in medicine as a solvent. In Chinese traditional medicine, apricot seeds are used as a sedative for coughs and hiccups. In China, it is recommended to take apricot seeds in combination with other medicinal plants for bronchitis, tracheitis, laryngitis, whooping cough, and nephritis. Patients with diabetes should limit the use of apricots due to their high sugar content. The streaks protruding from the natural cracks of apricot trees dry out in the air, forming the so-called apricot gum. Powdered (white or yellow) apricot gum is used in medicine as a complete substitute for gum arabic. According to the emulsifying probability, the stability of the oil emulsions prepared on it and the viscosity, it surpasses gum arabic. Apricot gum is used to prepare oil emulsions and sometimes as an enveloping gum. Since apricot is rich in potassium, eating its fruits interferes with the absorption of radioactive potassium and cesium in the intestines. Masks from fresh fruit pulp are an excellent remedy for sunburns of the face, dermatitis. Apricot fruits are eaten fresh, they are also widely used for making compotes, jams, marshmallows, jellies, candied fruits, juices, wines and liquors. They are dried cut, whole with pits, whole with subsequent removal of pits, and sometimes with sweet apricot seed instead of the removed pit. The resulting products in the first case are called dried apricots (cut or torn), in the second – apricots, and in 30% – kaisa (without a core and with a core). Apricot kernels are used in the confectionery industryApricot Seeds Research in recent years has established an interesting property of amygdalin glycoside contained in the nuclei: it increases the body’s resistance to radiation damage. This is due to the fact that in small doses this potent poison does not cause death, but only inhibition of cells, their oxygen starvation, and in this state they are more resistant to radiation. Bitter almond essential oil, used in the pharmaceutical industry, is also obtained from apricot kernels. fatty oil, often unfairly referred to as peach. It is used as a solvent in the preparation of injection solutions and soft medicinal forms. apricot gumFor medical purposes, apricot gum is also used, which is an amber liquid flowing from damaged trunks, which solidifies in air in the form of light yellow solid nodules. It contains significant amounts of glucose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and is used as an enveloping, emulsifying and adhesive agent.


Before use, fresh fruits with stalks removed are thoroughly washed and allowed to drain. With a stainless steel knife, cut the fruit along the groove and remove the seeds. To prepare puree, fresh apricots are immersed in boiling water for 30-40 seconds, then they are peeled, cut into 2-4 parts, and the seeds are removed. Pieces of apricots are poured with water so that it slightly covers them, and boiled for 5-8 minutes, then wiped, adding a decoction. Dried apricots are sorted out before use, removing impurities, washed thoroughly in warm water, changing it several times. Washed dried apricots are poured with warm water and left to swell for 2-3 hours. To prepare mashed potatoes, swollen dried apricots are boiled for 15-20 minutes in the same water in which it swelled, then wiped, adding a decoction.

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