Burnet officinalis

Diseases and effects: diarrhea, hemoptysis, uterine bleeding, dysentery, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, gingivitis, stomatitis.

Active substances: tannins, ellagic and gallic acids, pyrogallol, catechin, gallocatechin, flavonoids, saponin.

Collection time:  August – September

Medicinal burnet is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Rosaceae family with shortened vegetative and elongated generative shoots developing in the axils of rosette leaves. Underground organs are represented by a horizontal rhizome with adventitious roots, taproot, and sometimes tubers. Generative shoots are erect, up to 200 cm high. The leaves are alternate, pinnate, with 4-9 pairs of elliptical serrate-toothed leaflets. The inflorescences are complex, consisting of numerous oval or oval-cylindrical spicate inflorescences 12-30 mm long and 8-15 mm in diameter. The flowers are small, bisexual, dark red. The fruit is a nut.\r

In the southern part of the country it blooms in June, in the northern part – in August.\r

In medicine, the underground organs of the burnet are used – rhizomes with roots.\r

Habitats. Spreading

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The medicinal burnet is widespread in the European part of the country, Western and Eastern Siberia, and also in the Far East.\rWhen harvesting for the restoration of populations, it is recommended to leave some plants. Re-harvesting is carried out after 10 years.\r

Burnet officinalis is successfully grown in botanical gardens and nurseries, including in Western Siberia. It is recommended to carry out spring sowing with seeds that have undergone a 2-week stratification (when stored at room conditions, the seeds remain viable for 1.5 years). In the second year of culture, the mass of underground organs of one specimen reaches 17-27 g.\r

Before drying, the rhizomes are cut into pieces up to 20 cm long. Burnet is dried in the sun, under awnings, in rooms with good ventilation, spread out in a thin layer on paper or cloth and periodically stirring. When drying raw materials in dryers, the temperature should not exceed 50°C. According to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia article FS 42-1082-76, the content of tannins in raw materials must be at least 14%, moisture – no more than 12%. Raw materials are stored in a dry, well-ventilated area for up to 5 years.\r

Chemical composition

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Rhizomes and roots of burnet contain a polyphenol complex, including tannins, ellagic and gallic acids, pyrogallol, catechin and gallocatechin, flavonoids. In addition, burnet contains saponin (up to 4%), essential oil, vitamins A and C, and up to 6% flavonoids in above-ground organs.\r

Application in medicine

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In medicine, a decoction and extract of burnet are used as astringents and hemostatic agents for diarrhea, hemoptysis, and sometimes for uterine bleeding. Alcohol extracts and water infusions of rhizomes and roots kill pathogens of dysentery, typhoid fever and paratyphoid. Burnet also has an anti-inflammatory effect and is used to treat gingivitis and stomatitis.\r

It grows on chernozem, forest podzolized, rarely alkaline soils. Burnet tolerates only non-cordial shading; with a stronger one, generative shoots do not develop. She is very sensitive to grazing – even moderate grazing greatly depresses her. Burnet is dominant in meadow steppes and steppe meadows of the forest-steppe, in floodplain dry meadows, is a constant species of forb-grass and shrub meadow steppes, larch, pine and secondary birch forests, dry meadows, low-lying marshy meadows and valley marshes. Burnet can grow along roadsides, along the edges of fields, as well as along river banks on pebbles and shallows.\r

Preparation of raw materials.

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It is recommended to harvest burnet raw materials during the fruiting period, i.e. in August-September. Rhizomes with roots are dug up, shaken off the ground, cut off the stems and washed.\r

When harvesting for the restoration of populations, it is recommended to leave part of the plants. Re-harvesting is carried out after 10 years.\r

Burnet officinalis is successfully grown in botanical gardens and nurseries, including in Western Siberia. It is recommended to carry out spring sowing with seeds that have undergone a 2-week stratification (when stored at room conditions, the seeds remain viable for 1.5 years). In the second year of culture, the mass of underground organs of one specimen reaches 17-27 g.\r

Before drying, the rhizomes are cut into pieces up to 20 cm long. Burnet is dried in the sun, under awnings, in rooms with good ventilation, spread out in a thin layer on paper or cloth and periodically stirring. When drying raw materials in dryers, the temperature should not exceed 50°C. According to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia article FS 42-1082-76, the content of tannins in raw materials must be at least 14%, moisture – no more than 12%. Raw materials are stored in a dry, well-ventilated area for up to 5 years.

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