Other names: Krap, Marzana, Marina.
Diseases and effects: urolithiasis, cholelithiasis, gout, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cystitis, polyarthritis, inflammation of the spleen, delayed menstruation, tuberculosis, rickets.
Active substances: hydroxymethyl, oxyanthraquinone, ruberitric acid, haliosin, purpurine, quantopurpurine, pseudopurpurine, citric, malic and tartaric acids, proteins, sugars, pectin and tannins.
Madder tinting is a perennial herbaceous plant of the madder family. The root is powerful, branching at a depth; long rhizomes with renewal buds grow horizontally from the upper part of the root. The stems are decumbent, branching, tetrahedral, prickly-rough, in the presence of a support they grow upwards, their length reaches three meters. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical, 4-6 pieces. in a whorl, in the upper part of the stem – 2 each. Stems and leaves are pubescent. Inflorescences – sprawling complex panicles, flowers are small, greenish-yellow, corolla sympetalous, funnel-shaped with an undeveloped tube, five-parted; share it with small peaks. Five stamens fused to the corolla tube. Fruits 4-5 mm in diameter, black, juicy, drupe-shaped, 1-2 seeds. Weight of 1000 seeds – 30-35 g.\r
\rThe homeland of madder dye is the Mediterranean countries. To obtain roots and rhizomes, Georgian madder is grown at the Crimean zonal experimental station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal Plants. It can be successfully cultivated in the south of Ukraine. Demand for madder raw material is not satisfied.\r
\rRhizomes and roots contain 4-6% dyes – hydroxymethyl and hydroxyanthraquinones, their anthraglycoside derivatives, which are the main active ingredient in madder products; the presence of ruberitric acid, haliosin, purpurin, quantopurpurine, pseudopurpurine was noted. In addition, the roots and rhizomes contain citric, malic and tartaric acids, proteins, sugars, pectin and tannins.\r
Madder preparations loosen and destroy kidney and bladder stones, promote the removal of phosphate, oxalic and other salts from the body, they have antispasmodic, diuretic properties, and have a bactericidal effect.\r
Madder preparations are used for urolithiasis, gallstone diseases and gout. They are most effective with stones from phosphate and oxalate salts of magnesium and calcium; are also prescribed as a prophylactic after surgical removal of stones.\r
Madder products are also shown for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cystitis and polyarthritis.\r
In folk medicine, an infusion of the roots is used for inflammation of the spleen, delayed menstruation and as a diuretic. Madder is used in homeopathy for tuberculosis and rickets.\r
The dyes contained in the rhizomes of madder were used to dye carpets, wool and leather products in all sorts of red tones that persist for a long time. For this purpose, it was cultivated, but with the advent of synthetic dyes, madder lost its significance. Currently used only in medicine.\r
Medicinal raw materials of madder are dried roots and rhizomes of various lengths, from 2 to 18 mm thick. When cut, it should consist of pieces ranging in size from 0.5 to 8 mm. Particles larger than 8 mm are allowed no more than 10%, parts passing through a sieve with holes of 0.25 mm – no more than 5%. The moisture content should not exceed 13%, total ash – no more than 10%, other parts of madder – no more than 1.5%, organic impurities – no more than 1%. The shelf life of raw materials is 3 years.\r
\rMadder dye is a heat-loving plant with a long growing season. Propagated by seeds and segments of rhizomes. Seedlings are small, found on the 18-24th day after early spring sowing. The stems begin to grow in mid-May, blooming from June to August. Begins to bear fruit from the first year of vegetation. The most favorable for madder are light and medium-textured fertile soils. Moisture-loving plant. In dry years, it develops poorly, seed productivity is significantly reduced. Irrigation promotes good growth and development of plants, the yield of roots and seeds increases. In thicker roots and rhizomes, the content of anthracene derivatives is higher. The roots are harvested not earlier than 30% of its growing year, the yield is 8-10 centners / ha.\r
\rMadder dye is harvested at 3-4 years of vegetation, so it should be placed in specialized crop rotations, and it is also possible in open areas. Best predecessors: bare fallow, winter cereals, early harvested fodder crops. Under the madder, it is necessary to allocate fields that are not littered with perennial weeds.\r
The main tillage for madder is carried out according to the general rules of zonal technology. However, if soil conditions allow, plowing should be carried out to a depth of at least 30 cm, having previously carried out all agrotechnical methods for weed control after harvesting previous crops. In the subsequent period, after plowing, the soil is cultivated according to the semi-fallow type. As weeds appear, the soil should be cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm, with a subsequent decrease in depth to 5-8 cm by autumn. By the onset of winter, the field surface must be leveled and clean from wintering weeds.\r
In the spring, before sowing, it is better only to carry out harrowing in order to preserve moisture and destroy weed seedlings, and only on highly compacted soils is pre-sowing treatment to a depth of 5-6 cm possible; however, in a dry and hot spring, this technique traditionally leads to a strong drying of the topsoil and madder seeds may not germinate.\r
Madder is sown in the spring with a CO-4.2 seeder with row spacing of 60-70 cm. The depth of the seed is 4-5 cm, the seeding rate is 14 kg / ha.\r
Plantation care practices should be aimed at creating optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants. After the emergence of seedlings, 2-3 manual weedings from weeds and 4-6 inter-row treatments are carried out according to the general rules for row crops. In the second and 30% years of vegetation, prior to regrowth, it is necessary to carry out harrowing across the rows in order to remove the dead remains of madder stems. Weeds in the rows are weeded by hand, inter-row cultivation is carried out until the rows close.\r
Madder dye is responsive to growing conditions. In the south of Ukraine, the main role is played by the moisture supply of plants. Manure (30-40 t/ha) is applied under plowing, together with mineral fertilizers at the rate of nitrogen and phosphorus at 60 kg/ha. In the second and 30% years of vegetation, in the spring they are fertilized with mineral fertilizers N 40 P 20 , the depth of their application is 8-10 cm. Under irrigation conditions, the dose of mineral fertilizers during the main application can be increased to / NP / 90: soil content.\r
According to the Crimean Zonal Experimental Station of the Research Institute of Medicinal Plants (Savenko B.I.), in an arid climate, in order to get a good harvest of roots and seeds, it will be necessary to carry out 4-5 vegetation irrigations annually. Plants of the first year begin to water only in June-July. On transitional plantations, during a dry spring, watering begins in April-May. During the beginning of stalking, if there is no rain, the first watering is traditionally carried out. When there is an increased growth of the above-ground mass and roots, it is watered 2-3 times (July-August). From 30% of the Decade of August, only 1-2 waterings are required. The optimal rate is 400-600 m 3 / ha of water.\r
Roots and rhizomes are harvested in autumn at the 30% year of vegetation, when soil moisture can ensure high-quality operation of equipment. Before harvesting, the field is cleared of above-ground parts of madder and weeds. Depending on the condition of the plants, various types of mowers, rowers or harrows are used for these purposes. There are no special harvesting machines, so potato diggers are used. After deep (30-40 cm) digging, pruning of the root system and loosening the soil layer with a hinged digging bracket NVS-1.2: After digging, the roots are harvested by potato harvesters. The remaining roots are selected manually.\r
The roots are washed in running water or in special washing machines. Madder is dried in open areas or in dryers at a coolant temperature not higher than 50°C. Dried whole roots are packed in bales, chopped – in bags.\r
To obtain seeds, it is necessary to select areas of plants that are clean from weeds and have good development. Harvesting begins when the berry begins to dry out. The above-ground mass is mowed into windrows by various harvesters equipped with crop lifters. After drying, the windrows are threshed by grain combines, and the heap is sorted by seed cleaning machines, achieving a purity of at least 93%.\r
Brief recommendations for growing in home gardens
\rMadder is propagated by seeds or segments of rhizomes. Sow in the spring in well-heated soil to a depth of 4-5 cm, 30-40 pcs. seeds per 1 linear meter with a row spacing of 50-60 cm. The site should have loose, fertile soil. During vegetative propagation in early spring, the plot is marked at 45-60 cm, furrows are cut up to 10 cm deep, preferably freshly dug segments of rhizomes 6-8 cm long are placed in them at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, watered and covered with soil.\r
With seed propagation, seedlings develop slowly and require especially careful care. The madder area will need to be kept clean of weeds and loose. Passing crops spud or mulch in autumn. In early spring, dead plant residues are removed, plants are fed and the site is loosened.\r
The roots and rhizomes are harvested at the age of 30% in late autumn, after the end of the growing season. Before this, the above-ground mass of plants is mowed and removed. The rhizomes are dug up, shaken off the ground, washed in cold water, dried in attics under sheds or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 50 ° C. Store in a dry, well-ventilated area. Shelf life up to 3 years.