Calendula officinalis

angina, inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, gastric and duodenal ulcers, colitis, enterocolitis, liver and biliary tract diseases, cervical erosion, trichomonas colpitis, proctitis, paraproctitis, anal fissures, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, barley, diseases cardiovascular system, cuts, burns.

Active substances: carotene, citraksanthin, lycopene, kyaloxanthin, rubixanthin, flavochrome, phytoncides, flavonoids, saponins, calenduloside glycoside, triterpediols, alkaloids.

Collection time:  May – September

Botanical description\r


Biological features\r

Cultivation techniques\r

Use in rituals\r

Botanical description


An annual herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family with a peculiar smell. Stem branched up to 90 cm high. Root taproot, branched. The leaves are alternate, the lower ones are oblong-ovate, with petioles, the upper ones are oblong or lanceolate, sessile. Inflorescences – baskets, single, reaching 3-8 cm in diameter, located at the ends of the stems and branches; marginal flowers – reed, orange or yellow, pistillate; internal – tubular, reddish, staminate. The fruits are achenes of various shapes and sizes: sickle-shaped or arcuate, elongated. Weight of 1000 seeds – 7-15 g.\r



In the wild, calendula grows in South America, in the states of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. In Ukraine, it is found as a medicinal plant in specialized state farms and experimental stations, or as an ornamental plant throughout the south of Ukraine.\r

medical significance


The demand of the pharmacy network and the medical industry for this popular medicinal raw material is not satisfied. Flower baskets contain up to 3% carotenoids: carotene, citraksanthin, lycopene, hyaloxanthin, rubixanthin, flavochrome, etc.; essential oil – within 0.01%, acids: malic, pentadecyl and salicylic – 6-8%; mucus – up to 4%, resins – within 3.4%, bitterness up to 10%, tannins – 6.1%; phytoncides, flavonoids, saponins, calenduloside glycoside, triterpediols and a small number of alkaloids.\r

Calendula inflorescences and medicinal products from them have a wide spectrum of action and are used both in official medicine and in folk medicine. They have bactericidal, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, cardiotonic and sedative properties. In the form of an infusion (10:200) it is used for sore throat, inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, as well as an antispasmodic, choleretic and wound healing agent for gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, colitis, enterocolitis, diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Take 2-3 tablespoons 3 times every day 30 minutes before meals.\r

In gynecological practice, cervical erosion and trichomonas colpitis are treated by douching.\r

Baths and microclysters are done for proctitis, paraproctitis and anal fissures. For the treatment of eyes (with blepharitis, conjunctivitis and “barley”), an infusion or tincture is used (1 teaspoon of tincture per glass of boiled water) in the form of compresses and baths. When rinsing the mouth and throat, microclysters and douching, it is better to use an infusion of flowers. For douching, the infusion is diluted in boiled water in a ratio of 1: 5.\r

Marigold products are effective in diseases of the cardiovascular system, accompanied by palpitations, insomnia, hypertension. The infusion is taken 2-3 salt spoons 3 times every day before meals.\r

Calendula tincture is prepared in 70% alcohol from flowers and flower baskets (1:10) and it is recommended to take 10-20 drops per dose 2-3 times every day. For external use, the tincture is not diluted. The drug “Coleflon” is a purified extract from calendula flowers, it is used to treat peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, chronic gastritis in the acute phase. Ointment “Calendula” is prescribed for cuts, burns.\r

Marigolds are part of many medical fees. Widely used for the preparation of cosmetic ointments. In folk medicine, calendula is used to treat bronchitis, rickets, urolithiasis, dermatitis, eczema, and difficult-to-heal wounds.\r

Medicinal raw materials are dried flower baskets and reed flowers. Raw materials must comply with the requirements of FS-42-1391-80 (for manual harvesting) or VFS 42-1738-83 (mechanized harvesting). External signs of raw materials – partially crumbled or whole baskets without peduncles or with remnants of peduncles no longer than 37 cm. The smell is weak. The taste is salty-bitter.\r

During the test, the raw material should contain no more than 14% moisture; total ash – no more than 11%; the remnants of peduncles, including those separated from the baskets, – no more than 6%; baskets with completely showered reed and tubular flowers – no more than 20%; browned baskets – no more than 3%; organic impurities – no more than 0.5%; mineral – no more than 0.5. Shelf life 2 years.\r

Biological features


Calendula is a light-loving plant, it reproduces only by seeds germinating at a relatively low temperature – 4-6 ° C, and the optimum temperature is 20-25 ° C. Sow calendula in early spring, cultivate mainly terry form. Seedlings are detected after 10-15 days, the budding phase begins after 35-40 days, mass flowering – after 65-75 days, technical ripeness of seeds – after 100-120 days after sowing. It blooms for a long time, from the end of May until the first frost. To obtain the maximum yield of inflorescences, it is necessary to systematically harvest, preventing the formation of seeds. Marigolds are a drought-resistant plant, however, during the period of high summer temperatures and lack of moisture, the intensity of flowering is significantly reduced, the flowers become small even in terry varietal forms.

Cultivation techniques


Calendula is best placed in field or fodder crop rotations. The best predecessors are clean and busy fallows, row crops and winter cereals. On fields clean from weeds, marigolds can also be placed later on vegetable crops. It is not necessary to sow several years in a row in one place.\r

Methods of basic tillage should be aimed at the destruction of weeds and the preservation of moisture. After harvesting the predecessors, it is immediately necessary to carry out the plowing of crop residues, and after the growth of weeds and carrion, plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm with simultaneous rolling with ringed rollers. Rolling compacts the soil, helps retain moisture and improves weed regrowth. In the future, as weeds appear, the soil is cultivated to a depth of 8-10 cm. By winter, the site should be leveled and carefully cut. In early spring, harrowing is carried out, and before sowing, soil cultivation to a depth of 4-5 cm.\r

Marigolds are responsive to fertilizers. In the conditions of the south of Ukraine, it is better to apply 20 t/ha of rotted manure and mineral fertilizers at a dose of N 60 P 90 or one mineral fertilizer N 60 P 120 for plowing . For the simultaneous application of row fertilizer with sowing, it is better to use granular superphosphate at the rate of 30–40 kg/ha.\r

Calendula is sown in early spring in an ordinary way with row spacing of 60-70 cm, sowing depth – 3-4 cm, seeding rate – 10-12 kg / ha. For sowing, a CO-4.2 seeder with disc coulters and sowing depth limiters is used. Seeds must be carefully calibrated before sowing.\r

Marigold planting care is about keeping the soil loose and weed-free.\r

After the appearance of 2 pairs of true leaves in the shoots of marigolds, if the sowing density allows (traditionally at least 15 plants per 1 m2), harrowing can be carried out across the rows. The speed of movement of the unit must ensure the thinning of rows and the destruction of germinating weeds. In the future, caring for marigold crops differs little from caring for other tilled crops. During the growing season, 4-5 inter-row tillage is carried out and, as necessary, manual weeding will be carried out. In dry and hot times, marigolds need watering at a rate of 400-600 m 3 / ha of water.\r

Harvesting of calendula begins with the beginning of flowering manually or mechanically, when at least half of the reed flowers open. When manually collected, the inflorescences are torn off at the very base. Mechanized harvesting is carried out with calendula or chamomile stripping machines, while part of the buds and stems fall into the heap along with flower baskets, which requires sorting the heap on sorting machines.\r

In the first period of flowering, harvesting is carried out after 3-5 days, and in the subsequent ones, depending on the provision of plants with moisture, after 5-7 days. During the growing season, up to 15 collections of flower baskets can be carried out.\r

The collected raw materials are immediately sent to the place of drying. For drying, special covered areas or artificial dryers are used at a coolant temperature of 40-45 ° C. Subject to all agrotechnical requirements, the yield is 10-15 centners / ha of dry inflorescences.\r

For seed-growing purposes, it is necessary to use the best plots in terms of fertility, where there are no perennial weeds. Crops should not be placed next to production in order to create spatial isolation to preserve all the varietal properties of the crop. During the period of mass flowering, varietal weeding is carried out (sick, poorly developed plants with non-double inflorescences are weeded out and removed from the field. Marigold seeds ripen unevenly throughout the growing season, so it is necessary to harvest at the time when large inflorescences have ripened. You can harvest the seeds with a combine during the period mass browning, however, it is better to carry out manual harvesting.The collected seeds must be immediately dried on sites with canopies or by active ventilation at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C.\r

Dried seeds are sorted on grain cleaning machines. The yield of marigold seeds is traditionally 3-5 q/ha.\r

Cultivation in the backyard. Marigolds are an indispensable medicine in a home pharmacy, and their flowers adorn the garden from May until the first frost. Under this culture, it is better to dig up the soil in the fall and regularly weed out the growing weeds. Marigolds grow in the conditions of the south of Ukraine under fruit trees, in plantings of potatoes to scare away the Colorado potato beetle, in strawberry plots, in greenhouses to fight the nematode. But the best places are open to the sun. For digging, it is desirable to make 2-3 kg / m 2 of manure, 30 g / m 2 of nitrogen and 30-40 g / m 2 of phosphate fertilizers. But the main factor in obtaining a large harvest is good moisture supply to plants and regular collection of inflorescences.\r

In early spring, the soil is loosened, leveled and grooves are cut to a depth of 3-4 cm. If the spring is dry, the grooves must be watered, and then the seeds should be sown, sprinkling dry soil on top to prevent the formation of a soil crust that makes it difficult to germinate. Plant care, cleaning, drying and use are described above.\r

Application in rituals


If you have borrowed money and are in no hurry to return, then do the following. On Tuesday during the waning moon, sit at a table covered with blue cloth. Place three black candles on it so that they form an equilateral triangle. Light the candles. Cut out a strip of black paper 3 cm wide and 15 cm long.\r

Put the strip inside the triangle and write on it with white ink or paint the words: “DOREDO CANSER FLIGONE ALSAL”.\r

With your left hand, sprinkle the inscription no along its entire length with powdered calendula flower baskets.\r

When the ink dries, take the paper in your hands, slowly tear it along its entire length, starting from the end of the inscription. Simultaneously cast the spell:\r”Flargibon sademos, (debtor’s name) cardo falgi ans.”\r

Make sure that the paper strip does not go beyond the triangle formed by three candles.\r

When finished, blow out the candles and bury the torn pieces of the strip and the butt of the black candles in the ground on the east and west sides of your debtor’s house. The debt will be returned.\r

The description of the rite was provided by the Sorcerer Mstislav.

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