Datura vulgaris

Other names: Divderevo, Durye Potion, Prickly Apples, Stinky Datura, Badura, Bodyak, Cocklebur, Durnopyan, Stupid Grass, Crazy Grass.

Diseases and effects: neuralgia, bronchial asthma, convulsive cough, whooping cough, persistent hiccups, epilepsy, excessive sexual desire in women, severe spasms of the stomach and intestines, partial prolapse of the uterus and large intestine, rheumatism.

Active substances: tropane alkaloids: hyoscyamine, scopolamine, atropine.

Collection time:  June – October\r

General information

\r

Nightshade family (Solanaceae).\r

The name comes from the Arabic word tatura (tat – to prick); stramonium  – from Latinized French: “stinking weed”.\r

Popular names – divderevo, foolish potion, prickly apples, stinky dope.\r

Datura is also called “the holy flower of the North Star”. In recent times, in Ukraine, in the Crimea, the closest relative of wild dope is bred – decorative badura, which can be an adornment of literally every flower bed.\r

Some types of Datura – Datura alba and Datura metel  – have long been notorious in India. There even existed the profession of “poisoners with datura.” The poisoner prudently blew the powder from Datura seeds into the sleeping man’s nose through a tube. The man fell asleep even more soundly, and then everything valuable that was in his house was calmly carried away. Datura caused the same poisoning as henbane.\r

Datura seed oil applied to the temples causes hallucinations.\r

Botanical description

\r

An annual herbaceous plant up to 1 (in some sources – up to 1.5) m high. The root is taproot, branched. The stem is thick, erect, smooth, forked-branched, hollow. The leaves are alternate, large, ovate, long-petiolate, notched-toothed, with a pointed apex, dark green. Flowers solitary, apical or axillary, large, white, fragrant, on short stalks. Blooms in June – August. The fruit is a large ovoid capsule, densely covered with unequal spines, when ripe it opens into four wings. Seeds are dull black, flattened kidney-shaped. The plant is poisonous. Its smell is faint, narcotic, the taste is salty-bitter.\r

Spreading

\r

Datura vulgaris is common in central and southern Russia, Crimea, Ukraine and the Caucasus. It grows on deposits near housing, in landfills, littered places, along river banks, along roads, in gardens and orchards.\r

The main collection and harvesting areas are Ukraine, Georgia, southern Russia, the Rostov region, the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories.\r

blank

\r

Medicinal raw materials are leaves, grass (tops) and seeds. Leaves and grass are collected during the flowering of the plant with gloves. Dry immediately in the shade, in a well-ventilated attic or in a dryer at a temperature of 40-50 ° C. Seeds are harvested in autumn from mature fruits, sorted and dried in a dryer or oven. Stored in closed jars or boxes with well-closing lids for 2 years.\r

Datura stocks are renewed annually, and last year’s unused raw materials are burned.\r

Datura is poisonous, so it is necessary to carefully collect, dry and store its leaves and prepare medicines from it, and wash your hands thoroughly after working with the plant.\r

Chemical composition

\r

The leaves of this plant contain tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine. Their content should be at least 0.25% by weight of dry medicinal raw materials.\r

Datura common is characterized by the general pharmacological properties of atropine-like compounds, which are defined mainly as m-anticholinergic agents that block the functional activity of the m-cholinergic systems of the body. In its native form, Datura vulgaris is used for the preparation of complex plant products.\r

In addition to a stronger anticholinergic effect than atropine, hyoscyamine has a pronounced bronchodilatory effect, tones and excites the respiratory center. Like belladonna products, hyoscyamine lowers the tone of smooth muscle organs, reduces the secretion of sweat, salivary and gastric glands and pancreatic secretion, and also reduces the vagal effect on the heart.\r

Datura leaf preparations have a calming effect on the central nervous system, relieve spasm of the smooth muscles of the internal organs and reduce the secretion of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract.\r

Application

\r

In folk medicine, dope is used for neuralgia, bronchial asthma, convulsive cough, whooping cough, persistent hiccups, epilepsy, with excessive sexual desire in women, severe spasms of the stomach and intestines, for the treatment of partial prolapse of the uterus and large intestine, and also for long-term treatment of rheumatism (externally ).\r

The pharmaceutical industry produces a number of dope products: anti-asthma collection, astamol, asthmatin, dope oil.\r

Anti-asthma collection contains 2 parts of belladonna leaves, 1 part of henbane leaves, 6 parts of Datura leaves and 1 part of sodium nitrate. This mixture is a brownish-green powder with a peculiar odor, which is used in bronchial asthma. To do this, burn 1/2 teaspoon of the powder and inhale the smoke or smoke a cigarette full of raw materials. The powder, produced in the form of cigarettes, is called Asthmatol .\r

Astamatinum (Astmatinum) is a mixture containing 8 parts of datura leaves, 2 parts of henbane leaves and 1 part of sodium nitrate. It is prescribed for bronchial asthma. Used in the form of cigarettes.\r

Datura oil  is a clear oily liquid from yellow to yellow-green in color with a peculiar odor. Assign externally for rubbing with neuralgia and rheumatism. Included in liquid ointments used for rubbing.\r

For inhalation, an infusion of Datura leaves is also used . To prepare it, 2 tablespoons of raw materials are poured into 1 cup of boiling water, kept in a water bath for 5 minutes, then the vapors of the product are inhaled through the nose for 15-20 minutes.\r

Signs of poisoning

\r

Datura is a poisonous plant. It causes very strong hallucinations and is so dangerous that even researchers are afraid of it.\r

Datura preparations are contraindicated in glaucoma.\r

The active ingredients of Datura are alkaloids that have antispasmodic properties (reduce the tone of smooth muscles), dilate the pupil, relax the muscles of the bronchi, reduce intestinal secretion and peristalsis.\r

With mild poisoning, dry mouth, speech and swallowing disorders, dilated pupils and impaired near vision, photophobia, dryness and redness of the skin, agitation, sometimes delirium and hallucinations, tachycardia are found.\r

In severe poisoning, complete loss of orientation, sudden motor and mental excitement, sometimes convulsions with subsequent loss of consciousness and the development of a coma. A sharp increase in body temperature, cyanosis (blue) of the mucous membranes, shortness of breath with the appearance of periodic breathing of the Cheyne-Stokes type, the pulse is incorrect, weak, a drop in blood pressure.\r

Death begins with symptoms of paralysis of the respiratory center and vascular insufficiency.\r

A specific complication of atropine poisoning is trophic disorders – significant swelling of the subcutaneous tissue of the face, in the area of ​​​​the forearms and legs.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *