Diseases and effects: mild forms of chronic circulatory failure, heart neurosis, chronic heart failure stage I and II.
Active substances: cardiac glycosides, cardenolides odonitoxin and cymarin, quinones, adonivernit flavone glycoside, coumarins, saponins, adoitin alcohol, adonylic acid.
Collection time: April – June
A perennial herbaceous plant from the buttercup family, up to 40 cm high, with a thick multi-headed rhizome and cord-like roots. Stems numerous, erect, ribbed, glabrous or slightly drooping, branched at the top, covered with brown scales at the bottom.
The leaves are alternate, pentagonal or oval in outline, palmately dissected into narrow, linear lobes. The flowers are solitary, large, bright yellow, located on the tops of the shoots. The fruit is complex, consisting of numerous single-seeded nuts, back to ovoid. Flowering in March-May, fruiting in May-June.
It grows in the steppe, forest-steppe regions and in the Crimea among sparse mountain shrubs, in spruce thickets, on forest edges, glades and open slopes.
The area of distribution of spring Adonis in Ukraine runs 100-150 km north of the coast of the Black and Azov Seas. Beyond this border, there are small places of scattered growth in the basin of the Dnieper, the Nikolaev region with stocks of raw materials up to 1 ton. The same amount can be harvested in the Donetsk region.
The Crimea has its own range of adonis. Its northeastern border runs in the steppe part from Cape Peschanyi to the Kerch region. The southeastern border begins at Donuzlav Lake, then goes along the sea coast to the Kacha River, to its source and to Alushta. Stocks are 25 tons of dry grass. However, with the intensification of economic activity, the thickets are annually reduced, therefore, the places of compact growth of adonis in the Crimea need protection, and for this purpose 3 reserves have been created here.
For therapeutic purposes, grass is used, which can be harvested during the period from the beginning of flowering to shedding of fruits (in April – June), but the best raw materials are harvested during flowering. The grass is cut at a height of 5-10 cm from the ground and dried as quickly as possible, in order to avoid the splitting of active substances – glycosides. Can be dried outdoors in the shade; in attics, under a roof or in dryers at a temperature of 50-60 °.
The raw materials are leafy stems without flowers or with them, sometimes with buds or fruits. The stems should be 10-35 cm long, cut above the brown lower scaly leaves. Stems and leaves are green. The smell of raw materials is weak, the taste is not determined.
The biological activity of the herb must be at least 50-66 ICE or 6.3-8 KED. The moisture content in raw materials is allowed no more than 13%; total ash – no more than 3%; stems with brown leaves – no more than 2%; organic impurities – no more than 2%; mineral impurity – no more than 0.5%.
Adonis is a potent drug and should be stored with care separately in paper multi-layer bags, in closed glass jars or in boxes lined with paper. Storage period up to 2 years.
As impurities in the raw materials, summer adonis can get, which is distinguished by small flowers and color from yellow to intense red with a black spot at the base; Adonis Volga is smaller in size, the shape of the bushes is spherical, the leaves are wider with lowered lobes, the flowers are slightly smaller.
Long-term harvesting of adonis in the same areas leads to the depletion of its thickets. It is destroyed even more as a result of plowing of land and intensive grazing, therefore, in recent years, a number of measures have been taken to preserve this valuable medicinal plant. Experiments are being carried out to introduce the spring adonis into cultivation and to study the possibilities of medical use of other types of adonis.
The aerial part of the spring adonis contains cardiac glycosides belonging to the group of cardenolides. 25 cardenolides were found in the herb, 10 of them were isolated in pure form; the main ones being odonitoxin and cymarin. Quinones, flavone glycoside adonivernit, coumarins, saponins, alcohol adoiit, adonylic acid were found. Seeds and roots contain cardiac glycosides, the nature of which has not been established, in addition, coumarin vernadine was found in the roots.
From time immemorial, in the folk medicine of all countries, one of the main places was occupied by plants that have a selective effect on the heart. In Russian folk and official medicine, spring adonis, also called adonis in honor of the Greek mythological god Adonis, has long been used for this purpose for the beauty of bright yellow, one of the first spring flowers. In scientific medicine, Adonis was first used in the clinic of S.P. Botkin in 1880, and until now it is an unsurpassed heart remedy.
An infusion is prepared from the herb of Adonis, and in factories – the product adonizide (liquid and in tablets), containing the amount of glycosides. In addition, adonizide is an integral part of the complex cardiac agent cardiazid, which is a mixture of 2 parts of adonizide and cordiamine. Dry extract of Adonis is a part of Adonis Bromine tablets. Grass is one of the components of the collection according to M.N. Zdrenko. Adonis is used mainly for mild forms of chronic circulatory failure and heart neuroses. Therefore, an infusion of adonis is included in the soothing medicine of Bekhterev.
The use of products enhances systole and lengthens diastole, increases the stroke volume of the heart, slows down the heart rate.
In terms of strength and duration of action, Adonis is somewhat inferior to foxglove, but when used in therapeutic doses, the risk of cumulation is practically eliminated, which allows the products to be used on an outpatient basis. Adonis has a calming effect on the central nervous system, reduces the excitability of the motor centers, and dilates the coronary vessels.
Used for chronic heart failure stage I and II. It is not recommended to prescribe products for peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, acute and chronic gastritis, enterocolitis, as well as children under 2 years old. In case of an overdose, dyspeptic symptoms may occur.
Preparation of infusion. The crushed raw materials (6 g) are poured into 200 ml of water, heated in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cooled for 45 minutes, filtered and boiled water is added to the original volume. Take a tablespoon 3-4 times every day.