Popular names: red raspberry, raspberry.
RASPBERRY (Rubus idaeus L.)A branched prickly shrub of the Rosaceae family, with a perennial rhizome and erect shoots up to 2 m in height. Shoots of the first year are green, fluffy, covered with thin brownish thorns in the lower part. In the second year of life, they become woody, lose their thorns, bear fruit, and subsequently dry up, and new annual shoots form from the rhizome. The leaves are alternate, the lower ones are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets on the petioles, the upper ones are trifoliate with wide stipules adhering to the petiole. The flowers are white, small, inconspicuous, with a pubescent greenish-gray calyx, the lobes of which are bent down in fruits, collected in small, paniculate-corymbose inflorescences emerging from the axils of the leaves. Corolla of 5 petals. The fruit is a combined drupe, raspberry-red (in cultivated varieties it is yellow). In wild raspberries, the drupes easily disintegrate, in cultivated raspberries they grow together tightly. Seeds are small, hard, rounded. Blossoms in June – July, fruits ripen in July – August. Fruiting over the years is unstable. Its yield is strongly affected by rainy cold weather during flowering, which prevents the flight of pollinating insects. Propagated mainly vegetatively (by division, rhizomes, cuttings) and seeds. In the wild, it is distributed in the European part of the CIS, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, the Urals and the Caucasus. It grows along the edges of damp shady forests, clearings, burnt areas, forest clearings and clearings, along the banks of rivers and ravines. It prefers moist, humus-rich soils. The first written indication of raspberries was left by the ancient Greek scientist Cato in the 3rd century BC. e. Pliny the Elder, who lived in the 1st century, tells of wild raspberries, growing on Mount Ida (a mountain range in the center of Crete). Based on this legend, K. Linnaeus gave the plant its Latin botanical name. Roman explorer Palladius, who lived in the IV century AD. e., called raspberries a garden plant. The aristocratic strata of the population cultivated raspberries within their homes and dachas. The first plantations in Russia were founded by Yuri Dolgoruky.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
Raspberry fruits and leaves are mainly used as medicinal raw materials. Fruits (Fructus Rubi idaei) are harvested in dry weather and after the dew has dried, separating them from the cone-shaped receptacle. The collected raw materials are cleaned from leaves, branches, unripe, overripe, wrinkled and spoiled fruits, then, after preliminary drying, they are dried, spreading out in a layer 2-3 cm thick on paper, fabric or nets in dryers at a temperature of 50-60 ° C. Drying in ovens is possible. Well-dried fruits do not stain the hands when kneading. After drying, blackened berries are removed from the raw material. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. The smell of raw materials is specific, pleasant, the taste is sweet and sour. Leaves and flowers are harvested in June – July, dried in the air. Their shelf life is 1 year.
Raspberries have diaphoretic properties. Due to the presence of weak organic acids, fruits contribute to a shift in pH to an alkaline environment, the removal of uric acid salts from the body, stimulate urination, and improve digestion. Salicylic acid contained in the fruit has an antiseptic, antipyretic, diaphoretic and anti-inflammatory effect. Raspberry leaves and flowers are also characterized by hemostatic and antitoxic properties.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Roots. In Bulgaria, a decoction is a diaphoretic, for ascites. Wood. In Tibetan medicine – for acute and chronic infections, neurasthenia, neuritis, as an antipyretic. Branches. In Tibetan medicine, they are used similarly to wood. In Buryatia – with a fever. Decoction – for respiratory infections. Tops of branches (with flowers, immature fruits) – “raspberry tea” – for acute respiratory diseases. Leaves. In Tibetan medicine, they are used similarly to wood. Infusion or decoction (externally) – with erysipelas. Infusion (inside) – for colitis, cough, skin rashes. Decoction (inside) – for coughs, colds, sore throats. Fresh – wound healing; in the form of an ointment – for acne, burns, skin rashes. In Bulgaria, the infusion is used for diarrhea, gastritis and enteritis, hemorrhages, menorrhagia, bronchopneumonia and dermatitis. Outwardly – for diseases of the throat and oral cavity. water, alcohol and acetone extracts and juice – antibacterial. Aqueous extracts excite the central nervous system. Leaves, flowers. Infusion (lotion, douching) – for hemorrhoids and gynecological diseases. Leaves, flowers, fruits. Anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and high-vitamin remedy for hypertension, atherosclerosis and acute respiratory diseases. Flowers. Decoction, infusion – with gastralgia, respiratory infections; externally – for acne, eye diseases, erysipelas. Tincture – hemostatic; with diseases of the respiratory system; It was considered an antidote for snake and scorpion bites. In Bulgaria, an infusion of olive oil is used to treat dermatitis from insect bites. Fruits. Dried – diaphoretic. In Tibetan medicine, the powder is used for pneumonia and acute respiratory diseases. In folk medicine – to improve appetite and bowel activity; antiemetic, hemostatic in gastric and intestinal bleeding, menorrhagia, expectorant; with chronic rheumatism and measles; externally – with eczema, acne and conjunctivitis. Infusion – with diarrhea, anemia; tincture and decoction – for diabetes. Juice – for colds, gastritis, colitis. Raspberries are part of diaphoretic, vitamin, anti-inflammatory, antitussive collections.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
♦ Infusion of raspberry flowers: 20 g of raw materials are poured into 200 ml of boiling water, infused for 30 minutes, then filtered. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times every day.♦ Infusion of raspberry fruits: 100-200 g of dried raw materials are poured into 600 ml of boiling water, insisted for 30 minutes, then filtered. Take 2-3 cups for 1-2 hours at night as a diaphoretic.♦ Infusion of raspberry flowers and leaves: 10 g of flowers and 10 g of leaves pour 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, then filter.♦ Infusion of raspberry leaves: 10 -15 g of raw materials are poured into 200 ml of boiling water, insisted for 30 minutes, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 3 times every day. ♦ Decoction of raspberry leaves: 6-10 g of raw materials are boiled in 200 ml of water for 10 minutes, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 3 times every day. ♦ Raspberry leaf ointment: rub clean fresh leaves, squeeze the juice mixed with petroleum jelly or butter in a ratio of 1:4. ♦ Raspberry juice: take 1/4-1/2 cup before meals. , gout. May cause an allergic reaction in the form of itching, swelling, skin diseases.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
The fruits are used for food – fresh and processed, they are used to make tinctures, wines, liqueurs, liquors. Juice is suitable for coloring sweets, jams, kvass, for making lemonades, ice cream, canned food. Tops of branches with flowers and unripe fruits are used as a substitute for tea – “raspberry tea”. Honey plant. Raspberry honey is not inferior to lime. From 1 hectare of raspberry bees collect up to 4-6 kg of honey every day, and for the entire flowering period – up to 400 kg of honey. The average nectar content of one flower is 16.29 mg. The sugar content of nectar is approximately 51%. Feed for cattle. Productivity of fruits – 4 t/ha. Widely cultivated, there are numerous varieties.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
Raspberries are propagated by cuttings and division of bushes. Place it on flat areas, protected from cold winds. The soil must be fertile, loose, well-drained, but moist (however, raspberries die in too damp areas). Planted in spring, before bud break, or in autumn, after leaf fall. Before planting, 8-9 kg of manure or compost per 1 m 2 are applied .
Raspberry and melon salad.
Melon (250 g) peeled and seeds, cut into small cubes, add raspberries (300 g), mix, sprinkle with sugar, garnish with whipped cream and ice cream.
Place 200 g of selected raspberries in the shade, and pour 600 g of boiling water (2 l), boil for several minutes and strain. Pour sugar (200 g) into the broth, pour sour cream (1/2 cup) ground with flour (1 teaspoon), boil and cool. Drink from cups with a few fresh berries in each. Serve with croutons.
Rice with raspberry leaves.
Prepared rice (45 g), chopped raspberry leaves (25 g), grated carrots (25 g) put in a bowl in layers. Pour hot water over the products and cook for 10-15 minutes, let the porridge rest for 20-30 minutes and serve with sour cream (15 g).
Pour berries (1 kg) with hot sugar syrup (1.2 kg of sugar per 200 ml of water) for 5 hours. Drain the syrup, bring to a boil, put berries in it and cook until cooked, periodically removing from heat for 10 minutes.
Pour berries (1 kg) with sugar syrup (500 g of sugar per 2.5 l of water) for 6 hours. Drain the syrup, heat to a boil. Arrange the berries in sterilized hot jars, pour boiling syrup over, cover with lids and pasteurize: half-liter – 10 minutes, liter – 15 minutes. Cork.
Pour the berries (1 kg) in layers with sugar (500 g) for 5 hours, after which the berries are carefully transferred to an enamel pan and cook over low heat until the mass begins to separate well from the bottom and walls. Put the mass on a plate moistened with cold water, smooth the surface with a knife or spoon, air dry, cut into pieces of various sizes and shapes, sprinkle with powdered sugar or sand (100 g) and put in jars. Store in a cool place.
Berries (1 kg) stand in a warm oven or oven until they become soft, then wipe through a sieve or colander. Mix the juice with sugar (500 g), cook until the consistency of marshmallow, put into molds and dry in the oven.
Raspberries with sugar.
Berries (1 kg) are mixed with sugar (1 kg), heated to a temperature of 70-80 ° C, put into sterilized hot jars and pasteurized: half-liter – 20 minutes, liter – 30 minutes.
Boil berries (1 kg) in water (500 ml) for 15-20 minutes, strain through gauze, pour sugar (250 g) into the broth and cook, stirring often, over low heat for 45-50 minutes. Pour hot jelly into jars, molds. Store in a cool place.
In the berries (500 g), rubbed through a colander, add 4 yolks, mashed with sugar (to taste), pour in the diluted gelatin (1 tablespoon) and beat well until a homogeneous thick mass. Then add beaten egg whites, mix gently. Keep refrigerated. Serve with cookies, pies, muffins.
Milk with raspberry and apple.
Cut the apple into slices, remove the seed nests, chop in a mixer, adding a tablespoon of raspberries there. Transfer the resulting mass into a glass and add cold milk (100 ml).
First, pour a chilled mixture of sugar syrup (25 ml of water per 20 g of sugar) and clarified cherry juice (50 ml) into a glass, then a mixture of melon (80 ml) and lemon (10 ml) juices. After that, put a slice of melon strung on a skewer into the cocktail and decorate the drink with egg white and fresh raspberries (20 g) whipped with grape juice (10 ml).
Mix apple (100 ml) and lemon (25 ml) juices, raspberry syrup (25 ml), sugar (5 g). Serve the cocktail in a glass decorated with a sugar rim.
Mix 40 ml of gin, 20 ml of white vermouth, 20 ml of raspberry syrup.
Mix egg yolk, raspberry wine (20 ml), raspberry juice (10 ml), condensed milk (20 ml) well.
Pour cognac (20 ml), raspberry juice (20 ml) onto ice cream or ice (50 g). Mix everything and fill the glass with champagne or dry white table wine.
Mix apple (40 ml), raspberry (30 ml), orange (30 ml) juices, add chilled mineral water (100 ml). To stir thoroughly.
Pour raspberry juice (15 ml), rosehip juice (50 ml), chocolate syrup (40 ml), protein into a chilled shaker. Mix. Pour the resulting drink into a tall glass, half filled with crushed ice, and dilute with carbonated water (50 ml). Mix with a spoon. When serving, garnish with cherry berries, a slice of lemon or orange.
Mix apple juice (30 ml), milk (60 ml), egg, raspberry syrup (30 ml) in a mixer. Serve in a tall glass with ice and a straw.
Agnog with raspberries.
In a mixer, mix cherry liqueur (20 ml), 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of raspberries. Pour the mixture into a 250 ml glass, top with cold milk.
Berries (500 g) mash with sugar (80 g). Then beat the squirrels (4 pcs.) And, without ceasing to beat, add more sugar (70 g), after which carefully, one spoonful, add the berries. Beat until a thick foamy mass is formed.
Fiz with raspberry syrup.
Pour cherry sweet tincture (40 ml), lemon juice (40 ml), raspberry syrup (20 ml) into a glass. Fill the glass with chilled mineral water.
Raspberry, gooseberry and honey drink.
Wash raspberries (300 g) and gooseberries (300 g), let the water drain. Rub the berries through a stainless steel sieve. Dissolve honey (3 tablespoons) in water (500 ml), mix the solution with grated berries, strain through gauze and pour into glasses, which should be kept in the refrigerator before serving.
Raspberry drink with ice.
Fill the glass halfway with finely crushed ice, pour in raspberry juice (1 tablespoon) and lemon syrup (1 tablespoon). Put fruits from the compote on top and fill the glass with mineral water.
Sort and wash raspberries (2 cups), cover with sugar (1/2 cup) and after 5-10 minutes pour a glass of table white wine. Leave the wine with the berry for 2-3 hours, after which add a glass of chilled table white wine and cold mineral, well-carbonated water (to taste).
Bring water (1.5 l) to a boil and pour black long leaf tea (5 teaspoons) into it, let stand for 5 minutes. Strain, add raspberry syrup (200 ml), juice of 1 lemon, Cuban rum (100 ml) and cognac (100 ml), sugar (to taste). Mix everything, heat up to 70°C and serve hot.