common hazel

(Corylus avellana L.)Large shrub of the hazel family (Corylaceae), up to 8 m in height. The branches are covered with brown bark and characteristic white lenticels. Young shoots are grey, pubescent. The kidneys are rounded, laterally compressed. The leaves are short-petiolate, rounded or broadly obovate, rounded at the apex, with a short apex, doubly toothed along the margin. Staminate catkins drooping, within 5 cm of length. The flowers are unisexual, staminate in drooping catkins, pistillate enclosed in flower buds with raspberry stigmas. Pollinated by the wind. The fruit is a brownish-yellow nut, located in a green bell-shaped cupule. Lives up to 80 years. Blossoms in April before leafing out, fruits ripen in August. Propagated by seeds, root offspring and layering. Distributed in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the CIS and the Caucasus. It grows on fresh and moist fertile soils in broad-leaved and mixed forests (especially oak, hornbeam, beech and linden), along edges, ravines, among shrubs, sometimes forms thickets. In ancient Rome and Greece, hazel was considered sacred and they believed that a branch of a walnut tree can indicate where treasures are buried, put out the fire, stop the flood, protect against many diseases. Walnut was considered a symbol of life and immortality.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

For medicinal purposes, leaves, bark and fruits of hazel are used. Harvest young, May leaves, which are dried in the air. The bark is harvested in spring and autumn, dried in well-ventilated areas. Ripe fruits are dried in an oven or dryer at a temperature of 60-70°C. Shelf life of leaves 1 year, bark 2 years, fruits 1 year.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The plant has an astringent, antidysenteric, antipyretic, vasodilating effect. Nut kernels improve bowel function, promote the dissolution of kidney stones, and exhibit general strengthening and stimulating properties.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Roots. Decoction – for malaria. Wood. The “L-2 forest” liquid obtained by dry distillation of wood is used for all kinds of skin diseases – eczema, neurodermatitis, streptoderma, psoriasis, epidermophytosis. Bark. Astringent, antidysenteric, antipyretic. Essential oil and other components of the bark have a vasoconstrictive effect; infusion – with varicose veins, periphlebitis, varicose ulcers, capillary hemorrhages. In North American Indians in the form of a plaster – for tumors. In Bulgaria – with dilated veins, periphlebitis, capillary hemorrhages. Bark, leaves. In folk medicine, infusion – for varicose veins, trophic ulcers of the lower leg, thrombophlebitis, capillary hemorrhages. Leaves. For the treatment of intestinal diseases, anemia, beriberi, rickets; decoction – with prostatic hypertrophy, hypertension, kidney disease; infusion – like bark; ointment – for cancer. Juice – for the treatment of intestinal diseases, anemia, beriberi, rickets. Fruits. Powder from a dried cupule or a decoction of the shell and cupule – for colitis. Pounded fruits with water – for hemoptysis, nephrolithiasis, flatulence, bronchitis and feverish conditions, also as a lactogenic agent; crushed (with egg white) – for burns. Fruit oil – for cholelithiasis, epilepsy; to strengthen the hair rubbed into the head; with honey – for rheumatism, anemia, ascariasis and tumors. Plush. Decoction – with diarrhea. Pounded fruits with water – for hemoptysis, nephrolithiasis, flatulence, bronchitis and feverish conditions, also as a lactogenic agent; crushed (with egg white) – for burns. Fruit oil – for cholelithiasis, epilepsy; to strengthen the hair rubbed into the head; with honey – for rheumatism, anemia, ascariasis and tumors. Plush. Decoction – with diarrhea. Pounded fruits with water – for hemoptysis, nephrolithiasis, flatulence, bronchitis and feverish conditions, also as a lactogenic agent; crushed (with egg white) – for burns. Fruit oil – for cholelithiasis, epilepsy; to strengthen the hair rubbed into the head; with honey – for rheumatism, anemia, ascariasis and tumors. Plush. Decoction – with diarrhea.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

♦ Infusion of hazel leaves: 20 g of raw materials are poured into 200 ml of boiling water, infused for 4 hours, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 4 times every day.♦ Decoction of hazel leaves: boil 20 g of raw materials in 400 ml of water for 10 minutes, leave for 30 minutes, then filter. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times every day. ♦ Infusion of hazel leaves and bark: 25 g of crushed raw materials are poured into 250 ml of boiling water, insisted for 4 hours, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 3-4 times every day before meals.♦ Decoction of leaves and bark of hazel: 1 tablespoon of raw material is poured into 200 ml of boiling water, heated to a boil, insisted for 1 hour, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 4 times every day. ♦ Hazel leaf juice: squeezed from fresh young leaves at the end of flowering hazel. Take 1-2 tablespoons of juice with an equal amount of honey 3-5 times every day before meals.♦ Infusion of hazel bark: 20 g of crushed raw materials are poured into 200 ml of boiling water, infused for 5 hours, then filtered. Take 1/4 cup 4 times every day. ♦ Decoction of a hazel cup: boil 20 g of dried raw materials in 200 ml of water for 15 minutes, leave for 2 hours, then filter. Take 1/4 cup 4 times every day.♦ Walnut oil is taken 2 tablespoons 3 times every day for roundworms, epilepsy, rubbed into the scalp to enhance hair growth.

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

Hazel is suitable for forest shelterbelts, hedges and slope stabilization. The wood makes an excellent charcoal suitable for filtering and drawing. It is low-strength, small-layer, with a reddish tint, easily bending. Hoops, carpentry and turning products are made from it, it is used for small crafts. Sawdust – for clarification of wine and clarification of vinegar. The bark and leaves are suitable for tanning leather, the bark turns it yellow. The young leaves are eaten for making cabbage rolls and soups and as a substitute for tea. Branches and leaves are satisfactory fodder for small cattle. The nut kernel is used in liquor production, for the manufacture of confectionery, chocolate; “milk” and “cream” are obtained from fresh ones, and flour is obtained from dry ones, which is added when baking confectionery and bread products. Cake goes to the manufacture of halva; as a substitute for coffee. Fatty oil from fruits has a pleasant taste and aroma, its qualities are not inferior to almond oil. It is used for food, also for the production of creams, lipsticks, soaps, candles, paints and varnishes. Hazel pollen was used in folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of intestinal diseases. The productivity of a wild-growing bush is up to 0.3 kg of nuts, and in culture – up to 8 (sometimes 16) kg from 1 bush. In Ukraine, in Azerbaijan, Georgia and in some other places there are industrial plantings. Honey plant, gives the bees the first spring nectar, a lot of high-quality pollen, rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. its qualities are not inferior to almond. It is used for food, also for the production of creams, lipsticks, soaps, candles, paints and varnishes. Hazel pollen was used in folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of intestinal diseases. The productivity of a wild-growing bush is up to 0.3 kg of nuts, and in culture – up to 8 (sometimes 16) kg from 1 bush. In Ukraine, in Azerbaijan, Georgia and in some other places there are industrial plantings. Honey plant, gives the bees the first spring nectar, a lot of high-quality pollen, rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. its qualities are not inferior to almond. It is used for food, also for the production of creams, lipsticks, soaps, candles, paints and varnishes. Hazel pollen was used in folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of intestinal diseases. The productivity of a wild-growing bush is up to 0.3 kg of nuts, and in culture – up to 8 (sometimes 16) kg from 1 bush. In Ukraine, in Azerbaijan, Georgia and in some other places there are industrial plantings. Honey plant, gives the bees the first spring nectar, a lot of high-quality pollen, rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. Hazel pollen was used in folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of intestinal diseases. The productivity of a wild-growing bush is up to 0.3 kg of nuts, and in culture – up to 8 (sometimes 16) kg from 1 bush. In Ukraine, in Azerbaijan, Georgia and in some other places there are industrial plantings. Honey plant, gives the bees the first spring nectar, a lot of high-quality pollen, rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. Hazel pollen was used in folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of intestinal diseases. The productivity of a wild-growing bush is up to 0.3 kg of nuts, and in culture – up to 8 (sometimes 16) kg from 1 bush. In Ukraine, in Azerbaijan, Georgia and in some other places there are industrial plantings. Honey plant, gives the bees the first spring nectar, a lot of high-quality pollen, rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food. rich in proteins and vitamins. Cultivated varieties of hazel have been developed, which are distinguished by high productivity, different colors (red, variegated), used as decorative and food.

TASTY TIPS

Walnut oil.

Grind walnut kernels, dilute a little with water, heat, wrap in a clean towel and put under pressure. The oil is light yellow in color, has a pleasant smell, almond or olive taste, does not smoke when burned. Ripe kernels contain up to 72% oil. Cake can be used to make halva, chocolate, waffles, etc.

Milk and nut cream.

Cut the kernels of nuts, soak for 20 hours, then fry, grind with a small amount of water, beat with cream until fluffy. Drink like cream, use to make cream for cakes, pastries.

Nut cream.

Beat eggs (3 pcs.) And sugar (150 g) until thick in a saucepan placed in a water bath, then cool, add pieces of butter (150 g), nut cream (100 ml), grind thoroughly.

Nut drink.

Soaked and crushed kernels of nuts (200 g) pour water or milk (1 l) for 4 hours, then strain. Bring the infusion to a boil, add sugar, salt (to taste).

Coffee drink made from nuts.

Roast the nut kernels, grind in a coffee grinder or mortar, add ground black coffee. Brew 1 teaspoon of the mixture with boiling water (200 ml), bring to a boil, let stand. Add sugar (to taste).

Hazel tea.

Brew 1 teaspoon of dried hazel leaves with boiling water (200 ml). Add sugar (to taste).

Nut flour.

Grind dried walnut kernels in a coffee grinder. In a mixture with kernels, use for fillings in confectionery. 

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