Mullein scepter

(Verbascum thapsiforme Schrad.)A biennial herbaceous plant of the norichnikov family (Scrophulariaceae). The root is pivotal, powerful. The stem is erect, strong, simple, up to 2 m in height, winged from descending leaves, densely covered with a gray or yellowish felt of branched hairs. In the first year, a rosette appears with large, up to 40 cm leaves. The leaves are alternate, entire, obtuse, woolly-tomentose on both sides. The lower stem leaves are oblong-elliptical, narrowed at the base into short and wide petioles running down the stem. The middle and upper leaves are ovate-lanceolate, narrowed at the base and descending along the entire internode of the stem with wide wings. The flowers are large, light yellow, collected in bunches of 3-4 and form a long, dense spike-shaped brush. Flowering goes gradually from the bottom of the brush to the top. The fruit is elliptical-obovate, densely pubescent capsule up to 8 mm long. Seeds brown, cylindrical. Blossoms in July – August, fruits ripen in August – September. Propagated only by seeds. Distributed in the European part of the CIS, in the Caucasus, found in Central Asia and Eastern Siberia. It grows on sandy and sandy loam dry and fresh soils in pine and mixed forests, in glades, wastelands and weedy places, along roads, on fallow lands, and on the slopes of railway embankments.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

Medicinal raw materials are corollas of flowers with stamens. Each flower blooms only one day: in the morning it opens, and in the evening it fades and falls off. Blooming flowers with a bright yellow color are collected in the morning, after the dew dries. Collected in wet weather or in the evening, they quickly turn brown and lose their medicinal properties. In the same thickets, flowers can be collected for more than 2 months. The collected raw materials are immediately dried in attics with good ventilation or under awnings, spread out in a thin layer (1-1.5 cm) on paper or cloth and periodically mixing. In good weather, the raw material dries out in 4-5 days. You can dry it in dryers or ovens at a temperature of 40-50 ° C, scattering it on sieves. Drying is completed when the beaters become brittle. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. Dried flowers smell like honey. The raw material is hygroscopic. When moistened, it turns brown, loses its effectiveness and fragrant smell. Therefore, it is stored in tins, protecting it from moisture. Shaggy mullein (Verbascum phlomoides L.) is also allowed to be harvested, which in appearance looks like scepter-shaped mullein and differs only in shortly descending lower leaves, turning into oblong-ovate at the top, and ordinary mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.), which differs from the two previous species in smaller sizes.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The plant has a softening, enveloping, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diaphoretic, wound-healing effect. The main properties of the plant are due mainly to the presence of mucus, as well as essential oils and saponins. Mullein preparations protect the mucous membrane from external influences, alleviate pain at the site of application, reduce painful reflexes and spasms, and reduce tissue swelling.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Roots. Decoction – diuretic. Aerial part. Infusion – anti-inflammatory in gynecological diseases; antispasmodic and analgesic; with hypertension and atherosclerosis. In homeopathy – for respiratory infections. In Germany – for rheumatism, headaches, neuralgia, tracheid, gastritis, dysmenorrhea, diaphoretic, diuretic, wound healing. Leaves. Infusion – for hypertension, atherosclerosis. Leaves, flowers. In the form of tea – for acute respiratory infections, asthenia; infusion (rinse) – with angina; poultices (boiled in water or milk) – painkiller for furunculosis, burns, hemorrhoids; in the form of compresses – with arthralgia and bruises. In complex collections (baths) – with rickets, diathesis. Flowers (dry corollas). Infusion, decoction – expectorant, emollient; in dentistry (rinsing) – anti-inflammatory, decongestant, analgesic, hemostatic, with gingivostomatitis, periodontal disease, neuralgia of the facial nerve; tincture for rubbing in rheumatism, arthritic and especially nervous pains; in obstetric practice, the powder is wound healing for cracked nipples (previously treated with fish oil). In folk medicine, infusion, decoction – expectorant, anti-inflammatory, emollient, hypotensive, antispasmodic; with acute respiratory diseases, whooping cough, bronchopneumonia, gastritis, colitis, enteritis, diseases of the liver and spleen, diabetes mellitus; externally – with eczema and itchy dermatosis, hyperkeratosis of the scalp. Juice – for hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation of the respiratory tract, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, whooping cough, hoarseness, pulmonary tuberculosis and other diseases, accompanied by the formation of difficult-to-separate sputum; externally in the form of rinses – with angina; in the form of applications – as an analgesic for burns, panaritiums and hemorrhoids. 10% decoction, juice with the addition of honey (before going to bed) – a sedative that reduces the excitability of the cerebral cortex. In collections – for pulmonary tuberculosis; as diaphoretic, wound healing. Included in the “breast teas”. Seeds. They are part of the ointment – for abscesses and furunculosis; antiseptic – for purulent wounds and ulcers. They are part of the ointment – for abscesses and furunculosis; antiseptic – for purulent wounds and ulcers. They are part of the ointment – for abscesses and furunculosis; antiseptic – for purulent wounds and ulcers.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

♦ Infusion of mullein flowers: 1-2 tablespoons of raw materials pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist, then filter. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times every day after meals.♦ Decoction of mullein flowers: boil 20 g of raw materials in 300 ml of milk or water for 5 minutes, leave for 30 minutes, then filter and add sugar or honey to taste.♦ Juice from mullein flowers squeezed from the corollas of flowers in July – August. Take 1/2 teaspoon with milk 3 times every day.♦ Decoction of mullein roots: boil 20 g of raw materials in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes on low heat, leave for 30 minutes, then filter.♦ Mullein poultice: leaves with flowers are scalded with boiling water , crushed and wrapped in gauze. Apply to sore joints, muscles. ♦ Powder from mullein flowers: sprinkle wounds, cuts, cracks in the nipples after lubricating them with carrot juice.

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

In veterinary medicine, the aerial part (fresh) is anthelmintic, and the decoction, powder from the leaves is diuretic, lactogenic; externally – antiseptic, wound healing. Mullein flowers are used in nutrition: drinks, salads are prepared from them, eaten raw. The plant has insecticidal properties. The flowers give off a yellow color. Decorative, used in single and group plantings on lawns, in mixborders, near walls in large rock gardens. Honey plant. Cultivated in the states of Western Europe.

ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION

Mullein is undemanding to soil fertility, grows well on light sandy soils. Sowing is carried out in late autumn on previously plowed and leveled soil in rows, with row spacing of 70-80 cm, without planting seeds in the soil, since they are very small and after autumn rains they themselves will be at the required depth (0.2-0.5 cm) . In the spring, after the emergence of plants, the row spacings are loosened and weeds are weeded. In the future, abundantly developing rosette leaves themselves drown out weeds. In the second year, each plant throws out a powerful stem with a longish inflorescence. By the end of the growing season, they die. Instead, new plants grow by self-sowing.

TASTY TIPS

Salad with mullein.

Mix fresh mullein flowers (100 g) with chopped green salad (100 g), add chopped hard-boiled egg, green onion (25 g), salt (to taste), season with sour cream or mayonnaise (25 g). Sprinkle with dill and parsley.

Mullein drink.

Boil dried mullein flowers (200 g) with sugar (50 g) for 1 minute, drain. Serve chilled.

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