Viburnum ordinary

(Viburnum opulus L.)Large tree-like shrub of the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae), up to 4 m in height, with brownish-gray bark. The crown is sparse, often irregular in shape. The leaves are opposite, on petioles, 3-5-lobed, unevenly coarsely serrated along the edge, dark green above, glabrous, dull below, bluish-green, slightly pubescent. The flowers are white or pink-white, fragrant, collected in loose corymbose inflorescences located on the tops of young branches; marginal flowers enlarged, slightly irregular, with a flat five-lobed corolla, sterile. Median – smaller, with a bell-shaped corolla, bisexual. The fruit is a juicy bright red shiny drupe of irregular spherical shape, with one flat heart-shaped bone, which occupies most of the fruit. The flesh of the fruit is large, juicy, bitter-sour, tart. On one brush there are 80-100 fruits. Blooms in May – July the fruits ripen in late August – September and remain on the branches until the first frost. Tart, bitter fruits lose their bitter taste after freezing. It bears fruit annually (starting from 3-4 years of age) and abundantly. Propagated by seeds, layering, stump shoots. Distributed in the European part of the CIS, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Grows in damp deciduous forests (mainly in black alder and birch forests), mainly along edges, clearings, clearings and meadows overgrown with shrubs, also along the banks of rivers, lakes and swamps. Does not form pure thickets; most abundant in the river valleys. Among many Slavic peoples, viburnum was considered a symbol of girlish beauty, love and happiness. The red color, beloved by all Slavs, has always symbolized girlish beauty. The stone of viburnum fruit in its shape resembles a heart, therefore, among the people, the ruby ​​\u200b\u200bfruits of the plant became a symbol of the courage of people who gave their lives in the fight against enemies. There is a legend that these are the hearts of girls who led Tatar-Mongols into impenetrable jungle to save their loved ones. From their blood, who died from enemy sabers, viburnum bushes grew. Ancient herbalists (XVI century) mention medicinal properties, in which such properties as improving heart function, a diuretic effect, etc. were attributed to it.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

Medicinal raw materials are fruits, flowers and bark of viburnum. Viburnum fruits are harvested during their full maturity, in dry weather. When harvesting, mechanical damage to the fruit should be avoided, for which it is better to cut off or cut them together with the stalks. It is not necessary to transfer raw materials from one container to another, since with all this it is wrinkled and quickly deteriorates. The fruits of viburnum are dried in the air under sheds, in attics, hanging in bunches. It is best to dry in ovens and dryers at temperatures up to 80°C. The flowers are dried in dryers at a temperature of 40-50°C. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. The bark of viburnum (Cortex Viburni) is harvested in early spring (in April – May) during sap flow. It should be collected from the side branches, without affecting the main trunk; on cut branches, make annular cuts with a knife every 25 cm and connect them with longitudinal cuts; after this, the bark is easily removed. Dry outdoors in the shade, under a canopy with good ventilation, spreading a thin layer (3-5 cm) on paper or cloth. Drying is considered complete if the bark, when bent, easily breaks with a bang. The shelf life of raw materials is 4 years. The smell of raw materials is weak, the taste is bitter, astringent. The bark of the common viburnum is included in the domestic pharmacopoeia instead of the imported bark of the plum-leaved viburnum from America, introduced into European pharmacopoeias in the second half of the 19th century.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Tannin substances of viburnum, when administered intragastrically, precipitate mucus proteins with the formation of a dense albumin film that protects the sensitive nerve endings of the underlying tissues from irritation. As a result, pain sensations decrease, local vasoconstriction occurs, secretion decreases, cell membranes thicken, which leads to a decrease in the inflammatory response. Valeric and isovaleric acids contained in medicinal forms of viburnum bark have an antispasmodic effect and reduce the excitability of the central nervous system, increase the duration of action of hypnotics. Along with hemostatic properties, galenic products of viburnum bark increase the tone of the muscles of the uterus.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Branches. Decoction – for respiratory infections, throat diseases, scrofula, hemorrhoids. Infusion regulates blood circulation in leg ulcers. Branches, fruits. Decoction – for malignant tumors, stomach ulcers, ascites; externally – with conjunctivitis. Bark. Extract – hemostatic in metrorrhagia. In homeopathy, the essence is used for algomenorrhea and as an antispasmodic. In practical medicine, decoction, extract – for metro- and menorrhagia, algomenorrhea, in menopause, as well as hemostatic and anti-inflammatory – for hemorrhoids, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Infusion – sedative and hypotensive; with neurosis, hysteria, epilepsy, hypertension; externally – with catarrhal gingivostomatitis, periodontal disease. As part of fees in the complex treatment of diabetes mellitus; in the form of irrigation, drops, inhalation – for chronic catarrhal or acute rhinitis, for the prevention of acute tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheobronchitis. In folk medicine, decoction – for respiratory diseases, women’s diseases; as a sedative, hemostatic, anticonvulsant – with neurosis, hysteria, epilepsy, hypertension; also as a contraceptive; externally – antiseptic. Leaves. Infusion – with tonsillitis, helminthiasis. Juice – for furunculosis, skin rashes and lichen, as well as a tonic after serious illnesses. Flowers. Decoction, infusion – expectorant, diaphoretic for respiratory infections; astringent for diarrhea, stomach cramps; to improve digestion; with cholelithiasis and urolithiasis; externally – with skin tuberculosis, diathesis, eczema; infusion (rinse) – with angina, for washing wounds. Juice – with gastritis, painful menstruation, scrofula, skin rashes. Flowers, fruits. Decoction (in the form of rinses) – with sore throat and hoarse voice. Fruits. In practical medicine (fresh, infusion) – tonic, diaphoretic, laxative; with edema of cardiac and renal origin, hypertension, neurosis, anacid gastritis, colitis, liver disease, dermatitis; extract has a healing effect. In folk medicine (fresh) – laxative; with respiratory infections, diseases of the kidneys, stomach. Crushed with honey – for rectal cancer. Decoction, infusion – tonic, vitamin, hypotensive, diuretic, choleretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative; with respiratory infections, stomach ulcers, boils and carbuncles, eczema. A decoction with honey – for respiratory infections, hoarseness, ascites, diarrhea, cholecystitis. Juice – as an anti-febrile, diaphoretic, vitamin, mild laxative and disinfectant; with colitis, atonic constipation, also with bronchial asthma, hypertension, gastric and duodenal ulcers, liver diseases, menopausal neurosis, epilepsy, hysteria, headache, skin cancer and fibrous cancer; as cosmetic – for the treatment of acne, acne, skin pigmentation. Seeds. Decoction – for dyspepsia. Seeds. Decoction – for dyspepsia. Seeds. Decoction – for dyspepsia.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

Liquid extract of viburnum (Extractum Viburni fluidum) is prepared from coarse powder of viburnum bark in 50% alcohol in the ratio of raw material to extractor 1:10. Take 30-40 drops 2-3 times every day before meals. A decoction of viburnum bark (Decoctum corticis Viburni): 10 g (1 tablespoon) of the raw material is placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat over boiling water. water bath for 30 minutes, cooled at room temperature for 10 minutes, filtered, squeezed. The volume of the broth is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared broth is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1-2 tablespoons 3-4 times every day after eating as a hemostatic and antiseptic agent in the postpartum period, with uterine bleeding due to gynecological diseases. Infusion of fruits of viburnum (Infusum fructuum Viburni): 10 g (2 tablespoons) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, rubbed, pouring gradually 200 ml of hot boiled water, closed with a lid and heated in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cooled at room temperature for 45 min, filter, squeeze. The volume of the broth is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Taken throughout the day as a vitamin, tonic, diaphoretic and laxative, traditionally 1/3 cup 3-4 times every day. ♦ Viburnum leaf juice is taken 1/4 cup with honey 3 times every day. ♦ Viburnum flower juice take with honey (1:1) 1 teaspoon 3-4 times every day before meals. food. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: Viburnum products are not recommended for people with increased blood clotting, tendency to thrombosis, during pregnancy. Due to the high content of purines, viburnum fruits are also contraindicated in gout and kidney diseases. Fresh fruits cause vomiting.

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

Branches, fruits in veterinary medicine – hemostatic, improves digestion. The wood is suitable for the manufacture of shoe nails and small items in carpentry. Leaves stain fabrics by mordant in all sorts of tones. Flowers – in veterinary medicine for catarrh; recommended for foot and mouth disease in cattle. The fruits are edible (after frost) for juices, syrups, jams. Give red dye. Vinegar can be made from the juice. Seeds are a substitute for coffee. Honey plant, for half a month of flowering, bees collect approximately 15 to 30 kg of excellent dietary honey from 1 ha. It is very decorative both during flowering and when fruits ripen. It is valued in reclamation plantations as a soil-protective plant.

ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION

Viburnum ordinary is not demanding on soil fertility, but prefers open sunny places. It is propagated by seeds or vegetatively (cuttings, dividing the bush). Seeds are sown in autumn or early spring in holes to a depth of 3-4 cm. Young seedlings are planted in rows in the form of a hedge at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other. Plant care is the same as for blackcurrants or gooseberries.

TASTY TIPS

Pork legs with viburnum and peas

(Chuvash cuisine). Process pork legs (800-900 g), rinse thoroughly, pour in a small amount of water and cook until tender. Remove the legs, put sauerkraut (200 g), washed viburnum (150 g), finely chopped onion (2 onions), salt, bay leaf and simmer in the broth. Boil peas (500 g), pass through a meat grinder and season with butter (50 g). Put pea puree on a plate, boiled pork legs on top and pour with viburnum and sauerkraut sauce.

Gravy from viburnum.

Mix viburnum juice (200 ml) with juniper fruit powder (10 g), bring to a boil and cool. Serve with meat dishes.

Kalina with sugar.

Fruits of viburnum (1 kg) are mixed with sugar (1 kg), put into liter jars and pasteurized at a temperature of 95 ° C for 35 minutes. Cork.

Kalina in sugar.

Pour viburnum fruits (1 kg) with powdered sugar (200 g) with starch (5 g) and dry at room temperature for 12-14 hours.

Kalina in sugar syrup.

Put viburnum fruits (1 kg) in sterilized glass jars, pour 40% sugar syrup and pasteurize at a temperature of 80 ° C: half-liter jars – 15 minutes, liter – 30 minutes. Cork. Store in a cool place.

Viburnum juice.

Fruits of viburnum (1 kg) knead, squeeze the juice. Dip the pulp in boiling water (250 ml), boil for 10-15 minutes, drain the broth, combine with juice. Add honey or sugar (to taste). Pour the juice into sterilized glass jars, pasteurize. Store in a cool place.

Syrup from viburnum.

Mix viburnum juice (1 l) with sugar (2 kg), bring to a boil, remove foam, add citric acid (10 g), boil for 5 minutes, strain through cheesecloth, pour into sterilized bottles and cork.

Pastila from viburnum.

1. Wash fruits thoroughly in cold water. Blanch for 3-4 minutes, after which the water is drained, and the fruits are poured with cold water and boiled until they acquire a soft consistency. Rub the softened fruits through a sieve, add sugar (0.8-1 kg per 1 kg of fruits) and boil, stirring, until the consistency of batter. Then put the marshmallow in trays for drying in the oven.2. Fruits (1 kg) blanch for 3-5 minutes, put in a colander. When the water drains, pour into an enamel bowl. Add water (200 ml), boil over low heat until the fruits soften, rub through a sieve, mix with sugar (800 g) and cook until a pasty consistency. Transfer the mass to wooden trays, dry in a warm oven and cut into pieces.

Viburnum jelly.

Harvest fruits after the first frost. Blanch in boiling water for 6-8 minutes. Transfer the fruits to a saucepan, add water (2 cups per 1 kg), cook until softened. Rub the boiled mass through a stainless steel sieve. Mix puree (1 kg) with sugar (1-1.2 kg), boil for 45-50 minutes, then package in hot glass jars.

Viburnum jam.

Boil viburnum jelly (1 kg) for 10-15 minutes, add sugar (250 g), stir until it is completely dissolved and cook until tender. Arrange jam in glass jars, cork.

Morse from viburnum.

Mix viburnum juice (1/2 cup), hot boiled water (1 l) and sugar (to taste). Leave for 3-5 hours. Serve chilled.

Mousse from viburnum.

Soften gelatin (30 g) in a small amount of cold boiled water. Add water (up to 1 liter), stir and bring to a boil. Add sugar (200 ml), add viburnum juice (200 ml), cool to 35°C, beat quickly until fluffy, pour into molds and cool.

Kissel from viburnum.

Dilute viburnum juice (50 ml) with water (1 l), heat, add sugar (to taste), diluted starch and bring to a boil.

Pouring with viburnum.

Dissolve sugar (100 g) in water (100 ml), add viburnum juice (100 ml) and mix with vodka (0.5 l). Keep at least 2 days. 

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