blackberry

Popular names: dereza, ozhina, deaf raspberry.

BLACKBERRY (Rubus caesius L.)Semi-shrub of the Rosaceae family, with lying or ascending, often arcuate curved shoots up to 150 cm long, with a bluish or white bloom on the leaves. Shoots are traditionally of 2 types: annual non-lignified vegetative and biennial lignified. Only biennials bear fruit, after which they die. The thorns on the shoots are thin, curved. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate, the lateral leaflets are sessile, the apical ones are on pubescent or spiky petioles. The flowers are quite large (up to 2 cm in diameter), collected at the end of the stem and branches in sparse corymbose brushes. Pedicel with stalked glandules, calyx covered with thin gray felt, corolla white. Flowers appear late and unfriendly. The fruits are large, in appearance resemble raspberries, but do not separate from the stalks and do not have such a pleasant smell, black, dull, more often with a bluish bloom, fleshy, juicy, sweet, consist of a small number of stones. It blooms from late May to autumn, bears fruit in August – September, the fruiting period is extended. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering, offspring). Distributed throughout the European part of the CIS, in Siberia, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus. It grows in water meadows, forest clearings, along river banks, near road ditches, over ravines, in wet forests, near swamps. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. consist of a small number of bones. It blooms from late May to autumn, bears fruit in August – September, the fruiting period is extended. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering, offspring). Distributed throughout the European part of the CIS, in Siberia, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus. It grows in water meadows, forest clearings, along river banks, near road ditches, over ravines, in wet forests, near swamps. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. consist of a small number of bones. It blooms from late May to autumn, bears fruit in August – September, the fruiting period is extended. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering, offspring). Distributed throughout the European part of the CIS, in Siberia, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus. It grows in water meadows, forest clearings, along river banks, near road ditches, over ravines, in wet forests, near swamps. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering, offspring). Distributed throughout the European part of the CIS, in Siberia, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus. It grows in water meadows, forest clearings, along river banks, near road ditches, over ravines, in wet forests, near swamps. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering, offspring). Distributed throughout the European part of the CIS, in Siberia, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus. It grows in water meadows, forest clearings, along river banks, near road ditches, over ravines, in wet forests, near swamps. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century. It forms dense thickets in well-lit places. It has been well known for its medicinal properties since ancient times. It was also mentioned by Theophrastus, Avicenna, Dioscorides. It was introduced into culture relatively recently: in America – at the beginning of the 19th century, in Western Europe – from the second half of the 19th century.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

Medicinal raw materials are leaves, roots and blackberries. The leaves are collected during flowering, young shoots with leaves – in the spring, dried outdoors in the shade, in a well-ventilated area. The roots are dug up in spring or autumn, dried in dryers. Ripe fruits are harvested in the morning and only in sunny weather, as they are tender and not stale. Collection is carried out as they mature. Dry first in the sun, then in dryers, starting at a temperature of 70-75°C and ending at 45-50°C. The shelf life of fruits is 1 year, roots – 3 years.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The plant has a diuretic, diaphoretic, tonic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic properties, and has a calming effect on the central nervous system.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Roots. Decoction, juice – diuretic and anti-inflammatory; with ascites, liver diseases and colitis, hemorrhoidal bleeding. Aerial part. With colitis, diarrhea and dysentery. Leaves. Decoction, infusion – with gastritis, diarrhea, helminthiasis, to enhance intestinal motility, with anemia; externally – with eczema, chronic ulcers, purulent wounds, tonsillitis and pharyngitis, ulcerative stomatitis. Juice (from fresh leaves) – as a diaphoretic for colds; antihelminthic, tonic and sedative; to enhance intestinal motility; with anemia; externally – for the treatment of wounds, dermatosis – gum disease, trophic ulcers, lichen, eczema, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Fresh – for the treatment of wounds and dermatoses, with trophic ulcers. They are part of fees for the treatment of hysterical seizures, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Mixed with calendula flowers, they are used for intestinal catarrh. Leaves, flowers. In folk medicine, decoction, infusion – with diarrhea; infusion – for gastritis. Leaves, fruits. Juice – for gynecological diseases, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Fruits. Unripe – astringent; mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. Leaves, flowers. In folk medicine, decoction, infusion – with diarrhea; infusion – for gastritis. Leaves, fruits. Juice – for gynecological diseases, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Fruits. Unripe – astringent; mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. Leaves, flowers. In folk medicine, decoction, infusion – with diarrhea; infusion – for gastritis. Leaves, fruits. Juice – for gynecological diseases, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Fruits. Unripe – astringent; mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. infusion – for gastritis. Leaves, fruits. Juice – for gynecological diseases, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Fruits. Unripe – astringent; mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. infusion – for gastritis. Leaves, fruits. Juice – for gynecological diseases, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Fruits. Unripe – astringent; mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. mature – mild laxative. They are used for diarrhea and dysentery in babies, gastritis, acute respiratory diseases, hemoptysis; as a soothing and restorative, especially during menopause. Infusion – with tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Tincture is a dietary and medicinal drink for acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. in acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause. in acute respiratory diseases. Juice – to quench thirst in febrile conditions, as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for anemia, for the treatment of tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis; as a sedative and tonic, especially in menopause.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

♦ Blackberry juice is prepared from ripe, juicy fruits or young fresh leaves, sometimes roots. Take 1 / 2-1 cup with a tablespoon of honey 3 times every day before meals. ♦ Decoction of blackberry leaves: 10 g of raw material is poured into 200 ml of boiling water, boiled for 15 minutes, insisted for 2 hours, then filtered. Take 1 tablespoon 4 times every day. ♦ Decoction of blackberry leaves and flowers: boil 10 g of raw materials in 200 ml of water, leave for 2 hours, then filter. Take 1 tablespoon 4 times every day. ♦ Decoction of blackberry roots: 100 g of raw materials are boiled in 500 ml of water until the initial volume is reduced by half, then filtered. Take 1-2 tablespoons 3-4 times every day.♦ Infusion of blackberry leaves: 20 g of raw materials are infused in 400 ml of boiling water for 4 hours, then filtered. Take 1/2 cup 4 times every day 30 minutes before meals. ♦ Infusion of blackberry leaves and flowers: 10 g of raw materials are infused in 500 ml of boiling water for 4 hours, then filtered. Take 1/2 cup before meals. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: Individuals may be allergic to blackberries. Its symptoms are found after 5-7 minutes, and sometimes even after a few days. In case of allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, intestinal upset, swelling of the mucous membranes are found (laryngeal edema is especially dangerous, as it can lead to suffocation), and in more severe cases, the work of the heart and breathing is disturbed, loss of consciousness is noted. sometimes even after a few days. In case of allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, intestinal upset, swelling of the mucous membranes are found (laryngeal edema is especially dangerous, as it can lead to suffocation), and in more severe cases, the work of the heart and breathing is disturbed, loss of consciousness is noted. sometimes even after a few days. In case of allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, intestinal upset, swelling of the mucous membranes are found (laryngeal edema is especially dangerous, as it can lead to suffocation), and in more severe cases, the work of the heart and breathing is disturbed, loss of consciousness is noted.

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

Soil conditioner (planted to secure beams, slopes, ravines). Leaves are a substitute for tea. Dye fabrics blue. The flowers turn the silk greenish-yellow. The fruits are eaten fresh and processed. Fabrics are dyed in blue, purple, brown-violet and dark pink. Honey plant; honey is light, transparent, with a weak aroma. Decorative. Used for breeding winter-hardy varieties of raspberries.

ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION

In culture, blackberries are propagated by apical and stem buds or root offspring, providing a feeding area for one plant of at least 1.5-2.0 × 0.75 m. g of nitrogen per 1 m 2 . During the growing season, the soil is loosened 5-6 times. Blackberries are grown in well-lit areas with fertile, non-marshy, sandy or loamy soils.

TASTY TIPS

Blackberry salad.

Put the sorted and washed fruits (400 g) into a salad bowl, sprinkle with chopped walnut kernels (100 g), pour over the sauce: beat 2 egg yolks with sugar (100-150 g), dilute with dry white wine (100 ml), add a little grated lemon peel.

Blackberry salad.

Blackberry fruits (400 g) cut in half, apples (150 g) grated, gooseberries or grapes (150 g) pitted, currants (200 g) from petioles, plums (200 g) cut into 4 parts. Put everything in layers in a salad bowl and season with sour cream sauce (400 g) with sugar or berry juice.

Blackberry cake.

Chop margarine (200 g) with flour (400 g), add sugar (150 g), 3 yolks, ground peeled hazelnuts (100 g), knead the dough and put it in the cold for 1 hour. Form 4 cakes from the dough (without rolling, but spreading them with your fingers). Bake the cakes in the oven in a cake pan lined with oiled paper (100 g butter) at 240°C for 10-15 minutes. Remove from the mold carefully so as not to crumble. When cool, put between the three cakes 2 layers of blackberry jam (3-5 tablespoons), mixed with whipped proteins (6 pcs.). Brush the top and sides of the cake with the filling. Make crumbs from the fourth cake, sprinkle the cake and decorate it with fresh blackberries.

Blackberry compote.

Arrange fruits (1 kg) in sterilized jars, pour hot sugar syrup (300-400 g of sugar per 1 liter of water), cover and pasteurize: half-liter – 15 minutes, liter – 20 minutes. Cork.

Blackberry kissel.

Rub the fruits (200 g) through a sieve, add them to a boiling sweet starch solution (500 ml of water, sugar and starch to taste), stir well, bring to a boil.

Blackberry puree.

Wash fruits (1 kg), sort, peel and rub through a fine sieve. Bring the resulting puree to a boil over low heat, boil for 1-2 minutes, immediately pack in hot jars and seal tightly.

Blackberry jelly.

Heat the fruits (1 kg) to a temperature of 90 ° C, mash, squeeze the juice, add the juice of 1/2 lemon, dissolved gelatin (60 g), sugar (500 g) and cook over low heat until the jelly thickens.

Blackberry marmalade.

Heat the fruits (1 kg), mash, squeeze the juice and boil over low heat until half of the original volume is evaporated, add sugar (350 g) and cook until the desired consistency is reached. Marmalade cut into pieces and dry on parchment paper.

Blackberry pastille.

Steam fruits (1 kg) well in the oven, rub through a sieve, mix with sugar (500 g) and cook over low heat until jelly thickens. Pour the mass into molds, bake in the oven, then cool, sprinkle with sugar or powdered sugar (500 g).

Blackberry jam.

Sort the fruits (1 kg), remove the stalks, pour sugar syrup (1 kg of sugar per 300 ml of water) for 4-6 hours. Then drain the syrup, bring to a boil, cool, put fruits in it and cook over low heat until cooked.

Blackberry syrup.

Sort ripe fruits (1 kg), squeeze juice, add water (200 ml), sugar (500 g), boil for 5-10 minutes, pour into glass jars and cork. Store in a cold place.

Blackberry and red currant drink.

Wash and clean blackberries (500 g) and red currants (500 g) well, let the water drain. Rub the fruits through a sieve, add sugar (100 g). Dilute the mashed mass with carbonated or mineral water. Place an ice cube in each glass before serving.

Drink with blackberry and yolk.

Beat 4 egg yolks, add blackberry syrup (250 ml), orange or tangerine juice (100 ml), chilled boiled water (400 ml), food ice, mix well and strain into glasses or cups. Consume immediately after preparation.

A drink made from blackberries and milk.

Mix 1 glass of blackberry juice with 3 glasses of cold milk, add 5-6 teaspoons of sugar syrup; Pour into glasses with ice cubes.

Blackberry cocktail.

Blackberry juice (200 ml), 3 egg yolks, chilled boiled milk (400 ml) and honey (1 tablespoon) beat in a mixer, add food ice cubes.

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