Datura vulgaris

Popular names: durnopyan, drunken cucumbers, bodyak, fool potion, thorns, kinglets, stupefaction grass.

Datura Common (Datura stramonium L.)An annual plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), up to 120 cm high. The root is fusiform, white. The stem is erect, branched, fistulate, hollow inside. The leaves are large, alternate, narrowed into a petiole, with large notches and sharp teeth, when rubbed they emit an unpleasant odor. The flowers are large (up to 12 cm), white, solitary, located in the axils of the leaves and the forks of the stem, have a stupefying sweet smell. The corolla is cleft-lobed, with a long tube and a wide bell-shaped limb. The fruit is an upright ovoid capsule, covered on the outside with sharp green spikes (up to 1 cm long). In a box from 500 to 800 seeds. Seeds are large, dull black, flattened kidney-shaped, germinate in spring. Blossoms in July – September, fruits ripen from July to October. Propagated by seeds. Distributed in the European part of the CIS, Crimea, Western Siberia, in Ukraine and the Caucasus. It grows on fresh soil near dwellings, in wastelands, garbage places, along the slopes of ravines and river banks. Chooses rich, loose and sufficiently moist soils. It is found traditionally in clumps, rarely scattered. The plant is very poisonous! People have long paid attention to the effect of this plant. In India, from ancient times, there was even a profession of “poisoners with datura”. But it was used mainly as a means of causing hallucinations. It is believed that the ecstasy of the Pythia in Delphi was caused by this particular plant. The sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, founded by the god of light at the site of the death of the terrible serpent Python, was famous all over the world. In the sanctuary, the priestess Pythia gave predictions. These predictions were made in a state of ecstasy, often including a set of words that could be interpreted in different ways. Nevertheless, this sanctuary was widely known in the ancient world. In the 16th century, dope appeared in the vicinity of Vienna, where it was used as a drug. Its seeds were thrown on hot coals and poisonous smoke was inhaled, thus achieving drug intoxication.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

Datura leaves and seeds are medicinal raw materials. The leaves are harvested from the beginning of the flowering of the plant until the onset of frost, in dry weather (leaves collected with dew or after rain darken quickly), breaking off with hands. During the growing season, 3-4 collections are carried out, starting from the lower tiers. The harvested leaves are immediately dried in dryers at temperatures within 40°C, and in good weather – in the open air in the shade. Drying is completed when the midrib becomes brittle. After working with raw materials, it will be necessary to wash your hands thoroughly due to the poisonousness of the plant. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. Raw materials with an expired shelf life are burned. Seeds are harvested in autumn from ripe fruits, sorted and dried in a dryer or oven. Shelf life 2 years.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Datura common is characterized by the general pharmacological properties of atropine-like compounds, which are defined mainly as m-anticholinergic agents that block the functional activity of the m-cholinergic systems of the body. In its native form, dope is used for the preparation of complex plant products that act on the smooth muscles of the bronchi due to the most active left-handed alkaloid – hyoscyamine. Hyoscyamine has a pronounced bronchodilatory effect, tones and excites the respiratory center. In addition, it lowers the tone of smooth muscle organs, reduces the secretion of sweat, salivary and gastric glands and the secretion of the pancreas, and also reduces the vagal effect on the heart.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Roots. Powder – for respiratory infections. Aerial part. In Korean medicine – for bronchial asthma, respiratory infections, vomiting; as an antispasmodic and analgesic. Essence (fresh) in homeopathy – in manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – for nervous and mental diseases, depression, hysteria, nymphomania, rabies, rheumatism, conjunctivitis, whooping cough. The leaves are part of the anti-asthmatic collection, the Astmatin, Astmatol products used for bronchial asthma. “Datura oil” externally – with neuralgia, rheumatism; is part of saliniment and complex liniment – methyl salicylate as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory for articular and muscular rheumatism, arthritis, exudative pleurisy. In Korean medicine, externally – wound healing, cosmetic; with prolapse of the rectum. In homeopathy, tincture is used for nervous and mental diseases, bronchitis. In folk medicine, infusion, decoction – for neuralgia, rheumatism, bronchial asthma, erysipelas, priapism, nymphomania, epilepsy, gastralgia, colic, pleurisy, angina pectoris, uteroptosis, convulsions, chorea, loss of vision; fresh (locally) – for burns. Flowers. In Belarus (decoction) – for bronchial asthma and epilepsy. Fruits. In Transbaikalia – with malignant neoplasms of the stomach. Seeds. In homeopathy, tincture is used for manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. bronchitis. In folk medicine, infusion, decoction – for neuralgia, rheumatism, bronchial asthma, erysipelas, priapism, nymphomania, epilepsy, gastralgia, colic, pleurisy, angina pectoris, uteroptosis, convulsions, chorea, loss of vision; fresh (locally) – for burns. Flowers. In Belarus (decoction) – for bronchial asthma and epilepsy. Fruits. In Transbaikalia – with malignant neoplasms of the stomach. Seeds. In homeopathy, tincture is used for manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. bronchitis. In folk medicine, infusion, decoction – for neuralgia, rheumatism, bronchial asthma, erysipelas, priapism, nymphomania, epilepsy, gastralgia, colic, pleurisy, angina pectoris, uteroptosis, convulsions, chorea, loss of vision; fresh (locally) – for burns. Flowers. In Belarus (decoction) – for bronchial asthma and epilepsy. Fruits. In Transbaikalia – with malignant neoplasms of the stomach. Seeds. In homeopathy, tincture is used for manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. pleurisy, angina pectoris, uteroptosis, convulsions, chorea, with loss of vision; fresh (locally) – for burns. Flowers. In Belarus (decoction) – for bronchial asthma and epilepsy. Fruits. In Transbaikalia – with malignant neoplasms of the stomach. Seeds. In homeopathy, tincture is used for manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. pleurisy, angina pectoris, uteroptosis, convulsions, chorea, with loss of vision; fresh (locally) – for burns. Flowers. In Belarus (decoction) – for bronchial asthma and epilepsy. Fruits. In Transbaikalia – with malignant neoplasms of the stomach. Seeds. In homeopathy, tincture is used for manic states, trigeminal neuralgia. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids. In folk medicine – similar to the above-ground part. Tincture – for paralysis; externally – with radiculitis. Decoction – for toothache; with vegetable oil – for eczema and hemorrhoids.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

Asthmatin (Asthmatinum). Ingredients: dope leaves 8 parts, henbane leaves 2 parts, sodium nitrate 1 part. It is used for bronchial asthma in the form of cigarettes. Anti-asthmatic collection (Species antiasthmaticae) contains 2 parts of belladonna leaves, 1 part of henbane leaves, 6 parts of dope leaves and 1 part of sodium nitrate. The mixture is a brownish-green powder with a peculiar odor. Applied by inhalation of smoke generated by burning 1/2 teaspoon of powder. Asthmatol (Asthmatolum). Ingredients: belladonna leaves 2 parts, henbane leaves 1 part, Datura leaves 6 parts, sodium nitrate 1 part. It is used for bronchial asthma in the form of cigarettes. Dopey oil (Oleum Stramonii) is a clear oily liquid from yellow to yellow-green in color, with a peculiar smell. Included in the liniment for rubbing. Methyl salicylate (Methylli salicylas) is a colorless or yellowish liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor. Applied externally as an anesthetic and anti-inflammatory agent for rubbing (can be used in a mixture with chloroform, turpentine oil, fatty oils). Datura leaf (Folium Stramonii) has anti-asthmatic properties. As a medicinal plant raw material, it is included in the composition of powders and cigarettes used in the treatment and prevention of bronchial asthma. Higher doses for adults: single – 0.2 g, daily – 0.6 g. ♦ Datura leaf infusion: 2 tablespoons of raw materials are poured into 200 ml of boiling water, kept in a water bath for 5 minutes, then inhaled through the nose for 15-20 minutes couples. Used for bronchial asthma. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: due to the toxicity of the plant, it will be necessary to strictly observe the dosage and use only as directed and under the supervision of a physician. Overdose leads to severe poisoning. Poisoning often begins when eating dope net seeds (especially by children), also when working with raw materials (leaf powder) and when self-medicating. The main symptoms of poisoning: dry mouth, swallowing disorder, bloody diarrhea, dysfunction of the central nervous system (orientation disorder, hyperreflexia, impaired short-term memory, dilated pupils). First aid – see swallowing disorder, bloody diarrhea, dysfunction of the central nervous system (orientation disorder, hyperreflexia, impaired short-term memory, dilated pupils). First aid – see swallowing disorder, bloody diarrhea, dysfunction of the central nervous system (orientation disorder, hyperreflexia, impaired short-term memory, dilated pupils). First aid – seeBlack henbane .* In animals (horses, cattle, geese), after eating dope (in hay or green fodder), severe intoxication can develop, turning into a sharp motor excitation, which is then replaced by depression. However, for a number of groups of animals (rabbits, rats, dogs), birds (pigeons, chickens, thrushes), some insects, dope is not poisonous.

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

The leaves are used as an additive in pig feed to increase the fat content of meat. Insecticide (infusion, decoction) for spider mites, herbivorous bugs, hawthorn caterpillars, golden tails, cabbage moths. In folk veterinary medicine, tincture was given to animals for convulsions. Datura honey is poisonous. Cultivated in Ukraine, in the Krasnodar Territory and in the North Caucasus.

ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION

Propagated by sowing seeds in rows to a depth of 3-5 cm, row spacing – 60-70 cm. Seeding rate – 10 kg/ha. During the growing season, the leaves are harvested by hand 3-4 times.

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