Melilot officinalis

Popular names: yellow sweet clover, mole grass, wild buckwheat, yellow barkun, female sweet clover, hare chill.

Sweet clover [Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr.]A biennial plant of the legume family (Fabaceae), up to 2 m high, with the smell of coumarin. The stem (usually one) is straight, branched, glabrous, slightly pubescent in the upper part. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate with two lanceolate stipules, on long petioles. The flowers are yellow, small, moth-like, on short stalks, collected in many-flowered axillary racemes (with 30-70 drooping flowers). The fruit is a single-seeded, ovoid bean, with transverse wrinkles. Seeds are oval, green-yellow, smooth or small tuberculate. Blooms from June to September, fruits ripen from July to late autumn. Propagated by seeds. It is found everywhere in the CIS, often as a weed of cereals and clover. It grows along forest edges, in ravines, along roads, in upland meadows, in shrubs on fresh and dry soils.

COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS

Medicinal raw material is the herb of sweet clover. It is harvested during flowering, cutting off the tops and side shoots up to 30 cm long without thick and coarse stems with knives. You can not collect the grass of the sweet clover on the roadsides and near dirt roads, where it is covered with dust. Raw materials are harvested in dry weather, when the dew has come down, since being wet it warms up very quickly and darkens. The raw materials are immediately sent for drying. The raw materials are dried in attics with good ventilation or under sheds, spreading out in a thin layer (up to 5-7 cm thick) on paper or cloth and periodically turning over. Drying is completed when the stems become brittle. You can not overdry the raw materials, because then almost all the leaves crumble. Dry in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40°C. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. The smell of raw materials is coumarin (the smell of fresh hay), salty-bitter taste. It is an export item.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The biological activity of the plant is determined by the presence of coumarin in it. Sweet clover coumarin increases systolic blood pressure, increases cardiac output and the number of leukocytes in the blood, improves cerebral and peripheral blood supply and blood circulation in the abdominal organs.

APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

There is information about the use of sweet clover in India as an emollient, hemostatic agent; with flatulence. In Chinese medicine in collections – for the treatment of epidemic encephalitis. Aboveground part. In homeopathy – for the manufacture of essences; inside – with menopausal ailments and psychoses due to hyperemia. In folk medicine – a laxative, included in the emollient fees; with gynecological diseases; infusion, decoction – with flatulence, diseases of the upper respiratory tract and lungs, hypertension, atherosclerosis; as expectorant, sedative, diuretic, antibacterial, hypotensive, antispasmodic, analgesic. Outwardly infusion, decoction (baths, compresses, washings, poultices, lotions, ointments, plasters) – as an irritant, distracting, anti-inflammatory, cleansing, emollient; with abscesses furunculosis, mastitis, articular rheumatism and malignant tumors. In Bulgaria, infusion, decoction – anticoagulant and fibrinolytic; with chronic bronchitis, cystitis, migraine, hypertension. In Poland – with insomnia, neurasthenia, with heart and headaches; externally – for the treatment of hemorrhoids. In Austria and Germany – for diseases of the stomach and bronchitis. In France, the decoction inside is antispasmodic and astringent; for gout. Leaves. A tissue product “Meliocin” is proposed, the biostimulating effect of which is twice as high as that of aloe extract. Flowers (fresh). Ointment (externally) – with boils, carbuncles to accelerate their maturation. In Poland – with insomnia, neurasthenia, with heart and headaches; externally – for the treatment of hemorrhoids. In Austria and Germany – for diseases of the stomach and bronchitis. In France, the decoction inside is antispasmodic and astringent; for gout. Leaves. A tissue product “Meliocin” is proposed, the biostimulating effect of which is twice as high as that of aloe extract. Flowers (fresh). Ointment (externally) – with boils, carbuncles to accelerate their maturation. In Poland – with insomnia, neurasthenia, with heart and headaches; externally – for the treatment of hemorrhoids. In Austria and Germany – for diseases of the stomach and bronchitis. In France, the decoction inside is antispasmodic and astringent; for gout. Leaves. A tissue product “Meliocin” is proposed, the biostimulating effect of which is twice as high as that of aloe extract. Flowers (fresh). Ointment (externally) – with boils, carbuncles to accelerate their maturation.

DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES

Sweet clover herb (Herba Meliloti) is part of an emollient collection (tea) for poultices in a sweet clover patch, which promotes resorption and opening of abscesses and tumors. dishes, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, close the lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, filter, squeeze. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1 / 3-1 / 2 cup 2-3 times every day as an expectorant and anti-inflammatory agent. ♦ Decoction of sweet clover herb: 10 g of raw material is poured into 200 ml of water, boiled for 30 minutes, then filtered. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times every day.♦ Ointment from fresh sweet clover flowers: 50-60 g of raw materials are thoroughly rubbed with 3 tablespoons of butter. muscles. With prolonged use and overdose, it causes dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, sometimes liver damage, hemorrhages (under the skin, into muscles, internal organs) and even paralysis of the central nervous system. You can not use it during pregnancy, internal bleeding, reduced blood clotting. Therapeutic use of sweet clover is possible only as directed and under the supervision of the attending physician or district physician. * Poisoning of animals is associated with feeding them spoiled hay or silage from sweet clover. When hay rots (under the influence of mold fungi), poisonous dicoumarin appears, which has an anticoagulant effect. Poisoning develops with a latent period of 3-5 days and is characterized by bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders, depression of liver function, hematuria, and allergic reactions are possible. Penetrating through the placenta, dicoumarin can cause fatal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). When hay rots (under the influence of mold fungi), poisonous dicoumarin appears, which has an anticoagulant effect. Poisoning develops with a latent period of 3-5 days and is characterized by bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders, depression of liver function, hematuria, and allergic reactions are possible. Penetrating through the placenta, dicoumarin can cause fatal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). When hay rots (under the influence of mold fungi), poisonous dicoumarin appears, which has an anticoagulant effect. Poisoning develops with a latent period of 3-5 days and is characterized by bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders, depression of liver function, hematuria, and allergic reactions are possible. Penetrating through the placenta, dicoumarin can cause fatal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). Poisoning develops with a latent period of 3-5 days and is characterized by bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders, depression of liver function, hematuria, and allergic reactions are possible. Penetrating through the placenta, dicoumarin can cause fatal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). Poisoning develops with a latent period of 3-5 days and is characterized by bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders, depression of liver function, hematuria, and allergic reactions are possible. Penetrating through the placenta, dicoumarin can cause fatal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride). Poisoning is especially dangerous when there is a lack of vitamin K in the diet. In case of poisoning, sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa, clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle are injected intramuscularly with 0.1-0.3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing products (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride).

APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

In the Caucasus, young roots are eaten raw or boiled, and the leaves are used as a culinary spice. Used to make green cheese. The leaves are used as a flavoring agent in the dairy, meat, fish, tobacco and non-alcoholic beverage industries. It is used for aromatizing soaps and as an odor fixative in perfumery and the alcoholic beverage industry. Leaves in Tajikistan and France – for dyeing fabrics yellow. Insecticide for moths, raticide. Feed for farm animals. It is used for feeding livestock in the form of silage (it is poorly eaten fresh). In terms of nutritional value, it is not inferior to alfalfa. Good green manure – enriches the soil with nitrogen. It is popular as a good ameliorator of solonetzic soils. It has been established that after sweet clover, the yield of tobacco increases. Found in culture. Honey plant. Gives from one hectare up to 300 (800) kg of honey, light amber, transparent, sweet, with a sharp aroma. It is bred near apiaries, in special apiaries, on the slopes of ravines.

ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION

Seeds can be sown in several periods: in early spring, summer and before winter, but early spring is considered the best period. To accelerate the germination of seeds, they are soaked for 3-4 hours in water before sowing. After harvesting the predecessors, the plot is loosened to a depth of 4-6 cm, and after the mass germination of weeds, they are dug up to a depth of 25-28 cm. Before sowing the seeds, the soil is rolled. Seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm with row spacing of 60 cm. When sown in spring, seedlings are found in 2-3 weeks. With the advent of 2-4 true leaves, weeding, loosening and thinning of plants are carried out, leaving them at a distance of 30 cm from each other. In the first year, sweet clover blooms, but the fruits do not have time to ripen. In the second year, the growing season begins in early April.

TASTY TIPS

Sweet clover powder.

Grind dried leaves and inflorescences in a coffee grinder or ceiling in a mortar, sift through a sieve. Use as a spice for first and second courses, appetizers, sauces, drinks.

Salad with sweet clover.

Cut young leaves of sweet clover (20 g), add chopped fresh cucumbers (50 g), green onions (25 g), hard-boiled egg, salt, mix. Season with sour cream (mayonnaise, vegetable oil) (25 g).

Shchi with sweet clover.

In salted broth or water (500 ml), boil chopped potatoes (80 g), carrots (40 g), onions (25 g). 5 minutes before readiness, add crushed sweet clover leaves (20 g), sorrel (100 g), season with browned onions, tomato sauce (50 g). Before serving, put slices of hard-boiled eggs, sour cream (25 g), sprinkle with dill and parsley in bowls.

Okroshka with sweet clover.

In bread kvass (500 ml), put pieces of boiled beef (70 g), potatoes (50 g), hard-boiled eggs, fresh cucumbers (50 g), crushed sweet clover leaves mashed with salt and mustard (20 g) and onion (25 g ), sugar. Fill with sour cream (25 g).

Fried sweet clover roots.

Wash young roots, fry in vegetable oil, add salt (to taste). Serve as a side dish with meat or fish dishes.

Belorussian meatballs with sweet clover.

In minced beef (250 g) add chopped sweet clover leaves (20 g), onion (20 g), raw egg, ground black pepper, salt and mix thoroughly. Form meatballs from the mass, bread them in breadcrumbs (15 g) and fry in ghee or vegetable oil (25 g).

Meat stewed with sweet clover.

Fry the pieces of meat (250 g), put in a goose dish, add chopped onion (50 g), carrots (50 g) chopped on a coarse grater, chopped potatoes (200 g), sweet clover leaves (20 g), bay leaf, pepper, dill seeds, pour water to cover the surface of the meat, and simmer over low heat until tender.

Drink with sweet clover.

In boiling water (1 l), put the leaves and inflorescences of sweet clover (10 g), sugar (to taste), cranberry or cherry juice (75-100 ml), bring to a boil and cool.

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