Popular names: maun, cat root, earthen incense, magpie grass, shag grass.
VALERIAN (Valeriana officinalis L.)Perennial herbaceous plant of the valerian family (Valerianaceae), up to 2 m high. The rhizome is short (up to 3 cm long), thick (up to 2 cm in diameter), densely planted with numerous cord-like, light brown roots. The rhizome and roots have a strong specific smell and a sweetish-bitter taste. Stem straight, erect, ribbed, hollow, branched above. In the first year of life, the leaves are only rosette. The leaves are opposite, pinnately dissected, lanceolate, coarsely serrated along the edge, the lower ones are petiolate, the upper ones are sessile. The flowers are small, pale pink, fragrant, collected in apical corymbose or corymbose-paniculate inflorescence. The plant blooms in the second year of life. Blossoms from June to August, fruits ripen in July – September. The fruit is an oblong-ovoid achene with a feathery tuft. Propagated by seeds and rhizomes. Distributed almost throughout the CIS, with the exception of the Far North, Siberia and the desert regions of Central Asia. Grows in wet and swampy meadows, on the outskirts of swamps, in damp sparse forests, in floodplains, in bushes. In the wild, it does not form large thickets. The name valerian supposedly comes from the Latin word “valere” to be healthy and is associated with the medicinal effect of the plant. According to another version, the name is given either in honor of the Roman emperor Valerian (3rd century AD), or in honor of the Roman physician Pliny Valerian. The medicinal properties of valerian have been used by medicine since ancient times. Its calming effect on the human nervous system was known even to the doctors of Ancient Greece. Dioscorides considered this plant a means capable of controlling thoughts. Pliny the Elder called it “Nard Gallic” and attributed it to the means, exciting thought, Avicenna – to the means that strengthen the brain. In the Middle Ages, it was spoken of as a medicine that brings complacency, harmony and tranquility, in addition, valerian was revered as one of the most popular aromatics. Hence another name – cistus, or forest incense. In Russia, this is one of the most famous medicinal plants, to which magical properties were attributed. The industrial collection of valerian was organized in Russia under Peter I.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
For medicinal purposes, mainly the rhizome with roots is used. The best time to collect valerian rhizomes and roots is in autumn, when the withered stems turn brown and dry, but you can also collect them in early spring. Re-harvesting at the same place is carried out only after a 2-year break. After washing, thick rhizomes are cut into 2-4 parts, then laid out in a layer 15 cm thick and left for 1-2 days to dry in the air or in a ventilated room. After that, the raw material is transferred to the shade or to a well-ventilated room for drying. During heat drying, the temperature must not exceed 35°C; drying at a higher temperature leads to the loss of essential oil, while thin overdried roots are easily crushed. If the weight of the roots has decreased by 75% and they break when bent, the raw material can be considered dried. The shelf life of raw materials is 3 years. Roots and rhizomes have a peculiar smell, bitter, slightly burning taste.
Valerian has a sedative, tranquilizing effect on the central nervous system, regulates cardiac activity, has antispasmodic and choleretic properties, enhances the secretion of the glandular apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract. Valerian preparations have a positive neuroregulatory effect on the activity of the heart muscle and directly on the main mechanisms of automatism of the heart and the conduction system. In addition, herbal medicinal forms of valerian have coronary dilating and hypotensive properties. Valerian is more effective with systematic and long-term use due to the slow development of the therapeutic effect.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Rhizome, roots. official raw material. Galenic products (decoction, infusion, tincture, thick extract) are used as a sedative for nervous excitement, neurosis of the cardiovascular system, spasms of the gastrointestinal tract; are part of sedative collections, camphor-valerian and lily-of-the-valerian drops, Valocormid, Valedrina, Valosedan, Corvalol, Cardiovalena, Valocordin, Validol, Zelenin drops, carminative and gastric collections and collection Zdrenko. In medical practice – with chronic functional disorders of the nervous system, hysteria, epilepsy, convulsions, acute excitations due to mental trauma, with mild forms of neurasthenia and psychasthenia, manic-depressive states, migraine, neuralgia, neurodermatitis, with chronic disorders of the coronary circulation; for the treatment and prevention in the early stages of angina pectoris, hypertension, with heart defects; with certain diseases of the liver and biliary tract, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with impaired secretory function, with dysentery and typhoid and paratyphoid diseases; with functional disorders of the endocrine glands, hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, diabetes insipidus, certain types of beriberi, pre- and menopausal disorders; in dentistry – sedative, with the prevalence of the nervous component in the development of periodontal disease, multimorphic exudative erythema, in the complex therapy of diseases of the oral cavity; is part of the tooth drops. Outwardly – with lichen planus; to cleanse the skin and reduce sweating. In Tibetan medicine – for abscesses and pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, bronchitis, neurasthenia, purulent wounds; in Mongolian – antipyretic, analgesic; in Korean (externally) – for loose gums, toothache, to remove freckles. In folk medicine, tincture, decoction, infusion are used both in scientific and, in addition, for asthenia, sciatica, dizziness, fainting, collapses, tetanus, paralysis, spasmophilia, chorea minor, scarlet fever, visual impairment, rheumatism, gastralgia, stomach colic in babies , to improve appetite, with diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, hiccups, cancer (in particular of the rectum, throat), pulmonary tuberculosis, hypoxia, malaria, fever, diabetes mellitus, also as a diaphoretic, diuretic, antiemetic, anthelmintic, detoxifying ( when bitten by rabid animals) remedy. Infusion, decoction in the form of enemas – with gastric colic, vomiting, convulsions in babies; wash your head with a headache; with diathesis, epilepsy, chronic ulcers, for washing the eyes. Juice – reduces the excitability of the central nervous system and mental stress, improves sleep, relieves spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, headaches. Aerial part. Juice (frozen) in cosmetics – for irritations, redness, protects against involuntary contraction of the facial and subcutaneous muscles, tones and stimulates the nutrition and blood circulation of the epidermal layer, helps with inflammation of the eyes, relieves redness from sunburn, severe chapping; fresh – similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but has several times weaker effect. Flowers. Infusion – with typhus. improves sleep, relieves spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, headaches. Aerial part. Juice (frozen) in cosmetics – for irritations, redness, protects against involuntary contraction of the facial and subcutaneous muscles, tones and stimulates the nutrition and blood circulation of the epidermal layer, helps with inflammation of the eyes, relieves redness from sunburn, severe chapping; fresh – similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but has several times weaker effect. Flowers. Infusion – with typhus. improves sleep, relieves spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, headaches. Aerial part. Juice (frozen) in cosmetics – for irritations, redness, protects against involuntary contraction of the facial and subcutaneous muscles, tones and stimulates the nutrition and blood circulation of the epidermal layer, helps with inflammation of the eyes, relieves redness from sunburn, severe chapping; fresh – similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but has several times weaker effect. Flowers. Infusion – with typhus. relieves redness during sunburn, severe weathering; fresh – similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but has several times weaker effect. Flowers. Infusion – with typhus. relieves redness during sunburn, severe weathering; fresh – similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but has several times weaker effect. Flowers. Infusion – with typhus.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
Valerian infusion (Infusum Valerianae): 20 g (2 1/2 tablespoons) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature temperature for 45 minutes, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. Assign 2-3 tablespoons 30 minutes after eating, older children – 1 dessert spoon, young children – 1 teaspoon 3-4 times every day. Valerian decoction (Decoctum Valerianae): 10 parts of roots and rhizomes valerian is crushed (the length of the particles must be no more than 3 mm), pour 300 ml of water at room temperature, boil for 30 minutes in a water bath and cool. Take 1/2 cup 3 times every day. A rhizome with valerian roots, valerian root (Rhizoma cum radicibus Valerianae) is produced in packs of 100 g. Stored in a cool, dry place. Valerian tincture (Tinctura Valerianae) is prepared in 70% alcohol in a ratio of 1:5. It is a reddish-brown liquid with a characteristic odor and a bitter-sweet spicy taste. It darkens under the influence of sunlight. Assign inside adults 20-30 drops per reception 3-4 times every day, children – as many drops per reception as the child is years old. Produced in bottles of 30 ml. Thick valerian extract (Extractum Valerianae spissum). A dense mass of dark brown color with a characteristic smell of valerian and a spicy-bitter taste. Apply in the form of coated tablets, 1-2 pcs. appointment. Each tablet contains 0.02 g of thick valerian extract. Tablets are easy to take however, freshly prepared valerian infusion gives a more pronounced effect. Valerian potion with fennel. A decoction is prepared from the roots and rhizomes of valerian. Fennel fruits (1 part) are crushed, poured with water at room temperature (10 parts), boiled in a water bath for 30 minutes and infused for 45 minutes. Both decoctions are mixed and taken warm, 1 cup in the morning and evening. Corvalol (Corvalolum) is a combined product containing ethyl ester of a-bromoisovaleric acid within 2%, caustic soda within 3%, peppermint oil 0.14%, a mixture of alcohol 96% and distilled water up to 100%. Colorless transparent liquid with a specific aromatic smell. The composition and action is similar to the products “Valocordin” and “Mylocordin” (Milocordinum). Corvalol is used for neuroses with increased irritability, with mildly pronounced spasms of the coronary vessels, tachycardia, insomnia, in the early stages of hypertension, with intestinal spasms. Assign inside 15-30 drops 2-3 times every day, with tachycardia and vasospasm, a single dose can be increased to 40-45 drops. Corvalol is well tolerated; Even with long-term use of the product, no side effects are traditionally noted. In some cases, daytime drowsiness and slight dizziness may occur; when the dose is reduced, these phenomena disappear. Valocormidum (Valocormidum) is a combined product containing valerian tincture and lily of the valley tincture 10 ml each, belladonna tincture 5 ml, sodium bromide 4 ml, menthol 0.25 g and distilled water up to 30 ml. Transparent liquid of brown color, salty taste with a smell of valerian and menthol. Applied with cardiovascular neurosis, accompanied by bradycardia. In composition and action, it is similar to Zelenin drops. Assign 10-20 drops 2-3 times every day. Valosedan (Valosedan) is a combined product containing 0.3 g of valerian extract, 0.15 g of hop tincture, 0.133 g of hawthorn tincture, 0.83 g of rhubarb tincture, 0. 2 g sodium barbital, 20 ml ethyl alcohol, distilled water up to 100 ml. Used as a sedative for neuroses and neurasthenia, 1 teaspoon 2-3 times every day. Angisedin is a Swiss product. 1 tablet of angisedin contains: difelin 100 mg, peritrol triturate 12.5, caffeine 50, odephenin hydrochloride 15, valerian extract 30, phenobarbital 15 mg. The drug has an antispasmodic and sedative effect, dilates the coronary vessels, stimulates myocardial contraction, increasing the output and cardiac output. It is used for chronic coronary insufficiency, prevention of angina attacks, various kinds of cardialgia. Assign 1 tablet 3 times every day after meals. Cardompin (Card-ompin) – see.May lily of the valley Camphor-valerian drops (Guttae Valerianae cum Camphora). Ingredients: camphor 10 g, valerian tincture up to 100 ml. Transparent reddish-brown liquid with the smell of camphor and valerian. When mixed with water, it becomes cloudy, a white precipitate of camphor is released. Used as a sedative, mainly in cardiovascular neuroses. Assign 15-20 drops 3 times every day. Zelenina drops – see Peppermint.♦ Juice of rhizomes and roots of valerian: squeezed in early spring or autumn from peeled and well-washed rhizomes and roots. Take 1 teaspoon of juice and honey 3 times every day (the third time is required at night). ♦ Juice of leaves and flowering inflorescences of valerian is taken 1/4 – 1/3 cup with honey 3 times every day. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: As a rule, valerian is well tolerated, however, in some patients with hypertension, it has the opposite stimulating effect, disrupts sleep, and causes heavy dreams. You can not use it for a long time in large quantities. In such cases, it acts depressingly on the digestive organs, causes headache, nausea, agitated state and disrupts the activity of the heart.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
Rhizomes and roots are used in veterinary medicine in the form of infusions and decoctions: as a sedative for vegetative neurosis, antispasmodic for spasms of smooth muscles of the vessels of the heart, intestines, anticonvulsant, stimulating cardiac activity, regulating the activity of the cardiovascular system, etc. The juice of the aerial part is used in cosmetics and is part of the Olympia soft drink. Pitchers soar with flowers to prevent milk from sour in them. Honey plant. Decorative. It is widely cultivated, mainly in Ukraine, Belarus, Voronezh and Novosibirsk regions of Russia, Primorsky Krai.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
Valerian prefers fertile soils, does not tolerate their acidity. Drained and cultivated peatlands are suitable for its cultivation. The best predecessors are black fallow, perennial leguminous grasses, root crops and potatoes. 1-2 buckets of manure and a calculated dose of mineral fertilizers per 1 m 2 are introduced into the soil . With an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, the biological activity of the roots is reduced. In culture, valerian is propagated by seeds. The period of storage of seeds is not more than 1 year, as they do not retain their viability well. They are sown in spring or before winter, in autumn – in grooves without embedding to a depth of 3-4 cm. In spring they are sown to a depth of 1-2 cm. The distance between rows is 45-60 cm. 1 m 2. Shoots are found on the 12-20th day. After the emergence of seedlings, if necessary, thinning is carried out, leaving the plants at a distance of 3-4 cm. 40% and significantly increases the biological activity of rhizomes and roots. Rhizomes and roots of summer sowing are harvested in the fall of the following year, spring and winter sowing – in late autumn on the 1st or 2nd year of life, when the faded stems turn brown and dry, but no later than 2-3 weeks before the soil freezes. From 1 m 2seeded valerian for one growing season you can get 0.2-0.4 kg, and planted for growing – up to 0.5-0.6 kg of dry raw materials. It will be necessary to leave the largest plants for seeds. Seeds are formed in the 2nd year of vegetation and ripen unfriendly (for 30-45 days), therefore, as they ripen, they must be collected by shaking. From one plant you can get up to 0.5 g of seeds. Currently, the farms cultivate varieties of valerian Cardiola and Maun. In culture, the yield of underground organs is 15-25 c/ha, seeds 1-2 c/ha.