SANDY ICRITLE [Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench.]Perennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family (Compositae), with a short woody, weakly branched, black-brown rhizome. The stems are straight, simple, like the leaves, with white tomentose pubescence, up to 30 (sometimes up to 60) cm high; at the very base, not often with the remnants of dead leaves. The stem is single (and if there are several, then the secondary ones do not bear fruit). The leaves are alternate, basal and lower stem – oblong-obovate, narrowed into petioles; middle and upper stem – sessile, linear-lanceolate. Flowers in spherical baskets, collected in apical corymbose panicles, with a diameter of 7 mm. At the beginning of flowering, the inflorescence is dense, almost capitate, then loose. The basket wrap consists of many rows of lemon-yellow or orange, glossy, dry, membranous leaves. Rigid scales of the inflorescence wrapper do not wither and do not lose color even when the inflorescences are cut. Hence the name of the plant – immortelle. All flowers in baskets are tubular-funnel-shaped, bisexual, yellow or orange with a tuft (up to 100 pieces per peduncle). The fruit is a small brown, light brown or dark brown oblong achene with a crest. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.05-0.06 g. It blooms in June – August, the fruits ripen in August – September. In some years, in August – September, secondary flowering is observed. Secondary flowering is also observed after the plucking of inflorescences, with all this, baskets are formed in the axils of the upper leaves. Each basket blooms within 10-15 days; the first to bloom are the central baskets of the inflorescence. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively by shoots from rhizomes. It is widely distributed in the steppe regions of the European part of the CIS, in Ciscaucasia, Central Asia and South Siberia. It grows on dry and fresh sandy, less often sandy loamy soils. It occurs in sparse dry pine forests and light coniferous forests, in clearings, clearings, mainly on the southern and eastern slopes. Does not tolerate full shading.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
For medicinal purposes, flower baskets of immortelle sandy are used, which are harvested during the beginning of flowering, before the opening of the side baskets. A later period is unacceptable, as the baskets open, the flowers fall off and only the receptacle with the wrapper remains. Collected inflorescences with peduncles up to 1 cm long are loosely folded into baskets or bags and delivered to the place of drying as soon as possible. Storage in a container longer than 3-4 hours leads to deterioration of raw materials. The collection is carried out in dry weather, when the dew has come down. On the same array, the collection of inflorescences can be carried out up to 3-4 times, as the plants bloom. Re-collection can traditionally be carried out after 5-7 days. You can not pluck inflorescences with stems, pull out plants with roots. At the same place, repeated harvesting can be carried out after 1-2 years. The collected raw materials are dried in a cool place, spreading it in a thin layer (2-3 cm), or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C (drying without ventilation, flower baskets fall apart). The shelf life of raw materials is 3 years. The smell of raw materials is weak, fragrant, the taste is spicy-bitter. The dried raw material is stored in a dark place (otherwise it loses its presentation). When harvesting in the forest zone, it is necessary to smear 30% so that instead of immortelle, inflorescences of cat’s paws [Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaerth.], which are often found in the same places, do not get a habitat. They are easy to distinguish by pink or white basket inflorescences. Their use in medicine is not allowed. The dried raw material is stored in a dark place (otherwise it loses its presentation). When harvesting in the forest zone, it is necessary to smear 30% so that instead of immortelle, inflorescences of cat’s paws [Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaerth.], which are often found in the same places, do not get a habitat. They are easy to distinguish by pink or white basket inflorescences. Their use in medicine is not allowed. The dried raw material is stored in a dark place (otherwise it loses its presentation). When harvesting in the forest zone, it is necessary to smear 30% so that instead of immortelle, inflorescences of cat’s paws [Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaerth.], which are often found in the same places, do not get a habitat. They are easy to distinguish by pink or white basket inflorescences. Their use in medicine is not allowed.
Galenic forms of the plant improve bile secretion, reduce the concentration of bile acids, increase the content of cholates and bilirubin in bile. Helichrysum preparations increase the cholate-cholesterol coefficient and the tone of the gallbladder. Immortelle extract has an antispasmodic effect on the smooth muscles of the intestines, biliary tract, gallbladder and blood vessels. These properties are due to the presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant. In addition, immortelle products stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and activate the secretory ability of the pancreas, increase diuresis.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
inflorescences. Decoction, infusion and extract – in cholecystitis, cholecystoangiocholitis, cholelithiasis and hepatitis increase the secretion of bile, change its chemical composition, increase the content of cholates, reduce the level of bilirubin and cholesterol in the blood. In patients, the general condition improves, pain and dyspeptic symptoms disappear. It is used as a small sedative and improves metabolism in atherosclerosis. Increasing the secretion of bile and having a pronounced antispasmodic effect, immortelle products contribute to the washing out of sand and small stones (1-2 mm in diameter) in chronic calculous cholecystitis. In addition, by increasing bile secretion, immortelle products prevent bile stagnation, improve the metabolic function of the liver, reduce the viscosity of bile and its relative density, lower the concentration of bilirubin and cholesterol in it. Sandy immortelle flowers are included in the collection according to Zdrenko’s prescription, as well as in choleretic and gastric collections. In folk medicine, a decoction of immortelle inflorescences is used for diseases of the liver, gallbladder and biliary tract, kidneys and bladder (including nephrolithiasis), gastrointestinal tract (hypacid gastritis, enteritis, colitis), female diseases (with whites do also douching), hypertension, rheumatism, gout.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
A decoction of flowers of immortelle sandy (Decoctum florum Helichrysi arenarii): 10 g (3 tablespoons) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) with frequent stirring for 30 minutes, cool 10 minutes at room temperature, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting broth is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared broth is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1/2 cup warm 2-3 times every day 15 minutes before meals as a choleretic agent, with itchy dermatoses and as an anthelmintic. Dry immortelle extract (Extractum florum Helichrysi arenarii siccum) – granular extraction powder from immortelle flowers. Assign 1 g 3 times every day for 2-3 weeks. The course of treatment, if necessary, is repeated after 5 days. Sandy immortelle flowers (Flores Helichrysi arenarii) are produced in packs of 50 g. Store in a cool, dry place. There are also granules of sand immortelle flowers. 2 g of granules (9-10 pieces) are poured into 200 ml of hot water, brought to a boil with the lid closed over low heat, insisted in a warm place for 30 minutes, cooled and filtered. Cholagogic collection (Species cholagogae). Ingredients: sandy immortelle flowers 4 parts, water shamrock leaves 3 parts, peppermint leaves 2 parts, coriander fruits 2 parts. One tablespoon of the collection is brewed with 400 ml of boiling water, insisted for 20 minutes, then filtered. Take 1/2 cup 3 times every day 30 minutes before meals. Choleretic collection No. 2 (Species cholagogae No. 2). Ingredients: flowers of immortelle sandy 4 parts, herbs or yarrow leaves 2 parts, peppermint leaves 2 parts, coriander fruit 2 parts. The method of application is the same as for collecting choleretic. Both collections are produced in a pack of 100 g each. Flaminum (Flaminum) – the amount of flavonoids of immortelle sandy purified from ballast substances. It is a yellow powder with a slight specific odor, bitter taste. Take with chronic cholecystitis and hepatocholecystitis 1 tablet 3 times every day 30 minutes before meals (with a small amount of warm water – 1/2-1 cup). The course of treatment is 10-40 days. Flamin treatment does not exclude the use of other therapeutic measures. If necessary, the course of treatment can be repeated. The shelf life of the product is 4 years. Ointment arenarin 1% eye. Made on the basis of arenarin from the flowers of immortelle sandy. It is used to treat chemical and thermal eye burns. Arenarin has an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial effect on antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria (including staphylococci and streptococci); stimulates regenerative processes in tissues. The ointment is placed behind the lower eyelid of the eye 3-4 times a day every day for 6-8 days. The shelf life of the ointment at a storage temperature of 12 ° C is 2 years. ♦ Infusion of immortelle flowers: 10-15 g of raw material is poured into 200 ml of cold boiled water, insisted for 8 hours, then filtered. Take 1/2 cup 4 times every day 20 minutes before meals. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: Helichrysum products have low toxicity, but long-term use can cause congestion in the liver. Patients with hypertension should consult with their doctor before taking immortelle products, as they slightly increase blood pressure. Contraindication is obstructive jaundice.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
In everyday life, immortelle inflorescences shift clothes to protect against moths. Plants get yellow dye from grass. The drug “Naringen”, obtained from immortelle, is used in vegetable growing to combat bacterial canker of tomatoes. For preventive purposes, seeds are treated before sowing. Cultivated. The plant is very decorative, especially as part of dry bouquets.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
Immortelle sandy in culture is propagated by seeds. The plant prefers low-humus, slightly alkaline loams and sandy loamy chernozem. A plot for culture is being prepared in the fall. For digging, 2 kg of manure and 18-20 g of complex mineral fertilizers per 1 m 2 are applied . Seeds are sown in rows or holes to a depth of 1 cm with a row spacing of 45 cm. Seedlings are tender, small, found on the 7-10th day. After 1.5-2 months, the growth of plants increases, they form a rosette of leaves, some of them bloom in the first year. Blooms 1-1.5 months. For the winter, the aerial part dies off. In the second year, in April and June – August, generative shoots are formed. Without snow, when the soil freezes to a depth of 10 cm, the plants die, so snow retention should be carried out. It grows in one place for 4-7 years.