Popular names: burial ground, coffin-grass, ivy, brilliant green, flower, vinca.
Vinca minor L.Perennial evergreen plant of the kutrovy family (Apocynaceae), up to 60 cm high, with rooting stems. Shoots of 2 types – generative and vegetative. Wintering leaves, leathery, elliptical, on short petioles. The flower-bearing stem bears 1-2 flowers located in the axils of the leaves on pedicels equal to or exceeding the length of the leaves. The flowers are blue, solitary, within 2.5 cm in diameter, five-membered, with a calyx bare along the edge, a funnel-shaped corolla, with a thick pubescent stigma. The fruit is two multi-seeded oblong-cylindrical leaflets, one of which is underdeveloped or completely absent. Seeds oblong, tuberculate, brown. Blossoms in May – June (again in July), fruits ripen in late July – August. It reproduces mainly by means of vegetative shoots, which form adventitious roots in leaf nodes. Distributed in Europe and Western Asia. It grows on fresh, shaded, mineral-rich soils, in light deciduous forests, shrubs, and forest clearings. Occasionally bred as an ornamental plant, found in parks in a wild state. Periwinkle grows well indoors. The plant is poisonous! The generic name of the plant comes from the Latin verb vincere to win. For many European peoples, the periwinkle was the first herald of spring – as it were, the winner of winter. In addition, its leathery shiny leaves do not die from the cold in winter, remaining under the snow. Therefore, it became a symbol of vitality, permanence. There was a belief that a periwinkle planted in a garden brings happiness, and a periwinkle planted in a bouquet brings unchanging love. Therefore, periwinkle is planted on graves as a sign of eternal love and memory, wreaths are woven from it and placed at the head of the dead. Hence the Russian names of the plant – a burial ground, a coffin-grass. In Austria and Germany, they have long guessed on periwinkle wreaths. On the night of St. Matthew (February 24), the girls wove a wreath out of it, which they threw into running water. If, having circled blindfolded, a girl can catch a wreath, then this year she will be married. evil spirits. To do this, it must be collected between two holidays in honor of the Virgin: between August 15 and September 8, according to the old style. If the periwinkle flower plucked at this time is carried with you or hung over the door of the house, then the evil spirit will not have any power either over the owner of the talisman or over the inhabitants of the house, and in addition, it will protect against a lightning strike. Therefore, the plucked periwinkle was never thrown away, but placed in water so that it would not dry out. In Tyrol, where they believed in the existence of witches, it was believed that they could be detected with the help of a periwinkle. Witches, according to the Tyroleans, always walk with their heads up, but under normal conditions, people do not see this. Anyone who wants to find a witch must collect a periwinkle between the two feasts of the Virgin and hang a wreath from it over the door through which they enter the house, and then, if the witch enters the house, everyone will see that her head is raised up. However, the periwinkle will receive this strength only after lying down for some time in the church under the pastor’s prayer book. In medicine, the periwinkle has been used since ancient times.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
For medicinal purposes, the leaves (herb) of Periwinkle minor are used. They are harvested in spring and early summer (until July), cut off at a height of 3-5 cm from the soil plane. It is unacceptable to pull out rooted vegetative shoots; you can not pull out plants with roots, as this leads to the destruction of thickets. Harvesting in one place can be carried out no more than 1 time in 3 years. Dry in the open air or in dryers at a temperature of 40-50°C. In good weather, the raw material dries out in 5-7 days. The raw material has a bitter taste, odorless. Exported. Raw periwinkle is poisonous, so precautions must be taken when collecting, drying and packing it.
Galenic products and individual vinca alkaloids lower blood pressure, dilate the coronary vessels of the heart and cerebral vessels, relax the muscles of the small intestine and stimulate uterine contractions. Vincamine, the main alkaloid of the plant, improves cerebral circulation and oxygen utilization by brain tissues. In this regard, vincamine and its derivatives are used in the treatment of patients with impaired cerebral circulation.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
The decoction is used for malignant tumors; to improve metabolism; as astringent, hemostatic, wound healing; with pulmonary tuberculosis, scurvy, throat diseases. In Ukraine – with peptic ulcer of the stomach and esophagus; in Moldova – hypotensive. Roots. With peptic ulcer of the stomach. Aerial part. Raw materials for products “Vincan” (Vincanum) [“Vinkaton” (Vincaton)] and “Devinkan” [“Vincamin” (Vincamin)] – improve blood supply to the brain, have a vasodilating, hypotensive and slight sedative effect; with migraine, neurogenic tachycardia and other autonomic neuroses. The drugs have a positive effect on the work of the heart, increase the resistance of capillaries, increase daily diuresis. Devinkan stimulates uterine contractions. In homeopathy (fresh raw materials) – as a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory agent. Infusion – for hypertension, as a hemostatic for metrorrhagia and intestinal bleeding, astringent and antibacterial agent. In folk medicine, a decoction inside and out – as a tonic, laxative, hemostatic, wound healing, with dermatoses, ringworm, scurvy, impotence, diarrhea, toothache; tincture – hypotensive. Leaves. Included in the collection – with vegetative-vascular dystonia; decoction – hemostatic with metrorrhagia, especially in menopause. In folk medicine, decoction, infusion – for bronchitis, enteritis, colitis, migraine, pulmonary tuberculosis, impotence; externally in the form of rinses – with sore throat, scurvy, toothache, as a deodorant. In medieval Armenian medicine – wound healing, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, with diarrhea; externally – with ringworm. Flowers.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
Infusion of small periwinkle leaves: 5 g (1 tablespoon) of crushed leaves pour 200 ml of boiling water, boil in a water bath for 15 minutes, cool, filter, squeeze out the remaining raw materials. Take throughout the day (for those with hypertension) 1/3 cup 3 times every day. Assign inside of 0.005-0.01 g 2-3 times every day, children doses are set depending on age. With the onset of a therapeutic effect, the dose of vincapan is gradually reduced. Treatment continues for several weeks. Available in tablets of 0.01 g. Produced in Bulgaria. Vincaton, a product similar in action, is produced in Hungary. Devincan is the methyl ester of vincamic acid. It has a vasodilating and hypotensive effect, gives a mild sedative effect. The drug acts mainly on the vessels of the brain, improving the blood supply to the brain tissue. In this regard, it is used mainly in the cerebral form of hypertension, including crises. It is also prescribed for a systemic increase in blood pressure (in stages I and II of hypertension) and for neurogenic tachycardia. Apply devinkan inside and intramuscularly. Inside give adults 0.005-0.01 g (5-10 mg), starting with 2-3 times every day, and then 3-4 times every day. Children are prescribed 0.0025-0.005 g (2.5-5 mg) 2-3 times every day. Treatment continues traditionally for several weeks; before the end of treatment, gradually reduce the dose. Intramuscular injections of the product are made only in a hospital setting; enter, starting with a dose of 0.005 g (1 ml of a 0.5% solution), 1 time every day; then 1-2 ml every day. After the condition improves, they switch to taking tablets. It is produced in tablets containing 0.005 and 0.01 g (5-10 mg) each, and in ampoules containing 0.005 g (5 mg) of the product. Produced in Hungary. Cavinton (Cavinton) and vinkaton (Hungary) have a similar effect. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: due to the poisonousness of the plant, it will be necessary to strictly observe the dosage of the products and use them as directed by the attending physician. In case of an overdose, cardiac depression occurs. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: due to the poisonousness of the plant, it will be necessary to strictly observe the dosage of the products and use them as directed by the attending physician. In case of an overdose, cardiac depression occurs. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: due to the poisonousness of the plant, it will be necessary to strictly observe the dosage of the products and use them as directed by the attending physician. In case of an overdose, cardiac depression occurs.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
The aerial part can be used to dye wool gray. It is widely used in horticulture due to its decorative effect and unpretentiousness. Garden forms have been bred with simple and double flowers of various colors – white, purple, purple. There are forms with decorative leaves – silvery, yellow and striped. Periwinkle is beautiful in borders, in combination with decorative stone. It is also grown as an ampelous and ground cover plant for landscaping interiors.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
Lesser periwinkle is a plant that is undemanding to growing conditions, grows well on any type of soil, in shade, partial shade and in the sun. It does not require special care, but is responsive to fertilizing with a solution of organic and mineral fertilizers. It is propagated vegetatively and by seeds. Sowing seeds is carried out before winter or in spring to a depth of 1 cm. However, the best result is obtained when propagating by dividing the bushes and cuttings. Landing is carried out in the second half of August – the first half of September or in the spring. The distance between plants is 15-30 cm. Apical shoots that appear in spring and young creeping leafy stems are taken for cuttings, which are cut so that each cutting has 2-3 nodes. Cuttings take root throughout the summer.