ALOE TREE (Aloe arborescens L.)An evergreen perennial plant of the lily family (Liliaceae), up to 4 (10) m high. The roots are fibrous, highly branched. Stem erect, branched, abundantly covered with alternately arranged leaves. The leaves are greenish-gray, smooth, matte, juicy, sessile, linear-lanceolate with a pointed apex, spiny-acute-toothed at the edges. The flowers are large, pale orange, bell-shaped, tubular, collected in an inflorescence – a brush. The fruit is a blunt, triangular, almost cylindrical capsule. Seeds numerous, grayish-black, irregularly triangular. Propagated vegetatively by rooting children, tops of shoots. In culture, it blooms in the winter months, but not regularly, with all this, it traditionally does not form seeds. Widespread as an indoor, ornamental plant. In room conditions, it blooms very infrequently, houseplant height – up to 70 cm. Heat-loving, at a temperature of +1…-3°C it dies. It is bred as a medicinal plant in the Caucasus, Crimea and Central Asia. Aloe vera is native to South Africa, where it grows wild in semi-desert and desert areas, on stony soils, not often among shrubs, also on the islands of the East coast of Africa. Other types of aloe also grow wild in Madagascar and Arabia. The Arabs consider this tree a symbol of patience (sabur is the name for condensed aloe juice, which means patience in Arabic) for its resistance to heat and drought. Sabur was part of the ancient elixir of long life. The plant was brought to Europe by the Arabs in 1700. As a medicine, aloe was known in ancient Egypt, where it was used as part of the means for embalming the dead. More detailed information about the medicinal use of aloe is given by the ancient authors Dioscorides and Pliny. For a long time, the Greeks had to pay a huge price for aloe. And then Alexander the Great, on the advice of his teacher, the great philosopher Aristotle, undertook the conquest of the island of Socotra. This island at that time was famous for its sabur, which was exported to many countries of the world. After the conquest, the island was settled by the Greeks, and the natives were turned into slaves. Amirdovlat Amasiatsi wrote that Socotra is an island located off the coast of Yemen. All the inhabitants of that island are pagans and sorcerers with great power. At first they lived in the country of the Romans. And Alexander the Great sent them from the country of the Romans to this island, so that they settled it and prepared sabur there. Their women are engaged in witchcraft and fornication. If 2 people are at odds, and one of them is a stranger and they want to destroy him, then they turn to the sorceress. And that woman, if she wants to bewitch him, then keeps in her mind the name of this person and his image and reads the spell, then puts a bowl of water in front of her, reads the spell and performs her magic work until a drop of blood appears in the water, and then the liver , heart and lungs won’t fill the cup. And then at that very moment that person will die. And if you open the deceased, then there will be no heart, no liver, no lungs. They are so skillful in their witchcraft. It is they who prepare the sabur, which is called Socotrian. According to legend, Queen Cleopatra used the fleshy leaves of aloe to refresh the skin and make her hair silky. .
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
Medicinal raw materials are fresh leaves and the juice obtained from them. To avoid loss of juice, the leaves should be separated from the plant along with the sheaths, making a small incision at the base. Cut off the lower and middle leaves that have reached 15 cm in length. Collect leaves and children of different ages several times a year. In closed ground, you can collect raw materials in the winter. Fresh leaves and children are processed during the day after their collection. Sabur is not produced in our country, it is the subject of import.
Preparations of aloe and sabura (condensed aloe juice) have a laxative effect. When administered orally, anthraglycosides are cleaved in an alkaline environment and in the presence of bile into arabinose and aloe-emodin, which in 8-10 hours cause abundant soft stools, selectively affecting the large intestine. Galenic products of aloe and sabur enhance the secretion of the digestive glands, have a choleretic effect, improve appetite and digestion, and have pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-burn properties. Aloe juice has a bacteriostatic effect against many groups of viruses: staphylococci, streptococci, diphtheria, typhoid and dysentery sticks.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Leaves. Juice (fresh) – for chronic gastritis with low acidity, with a tendency to constipation, to improve appetite, to increase the body’s resistance to infectious diseases; externally – with purulent wounds, burns, osteomyelitis with an open purulent focus, trophic ulcers, abscesses, phlegmon and other purulent diseases; for rinsing with diseases of the oropharynx, gums; compresses with aloe juice – for skin tuberculosis, lupus, eczema, radiation dermatitis of the head. In gynecological practice – with cervical erosion. Aloe syrup with iron – for chronic and acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with posthemorrhagic anemia, hypochromic anemia of various etiologies, as a result of infectious diseases and other debilitating diseases and intoxications. Extract (liquid) – for blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratite, irite; with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, bronchial asthma, gynecological diseases. In Korean medicine – as a bitter gastric remedy (to increase appetite); with habitual constipation; mental melancholy, insomnia, gastritis, eye diseases, scabies, ringworm, lack of menstruation.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
Aloe extract liquid for injection (Extractum Aloës fluidum pro injectionibus). Aqueous extract from aloe leaves for subcutaneous injection. Transparent liquid from light yellow to yellowish-red color, bitter taste, pH 5.0-6.0. Enter under the skin every day, 1 ml (the largest daily dose is 3-4 ml); children under 5 years old – 0.2-0.3 ml, over 5 years old – 0.5 ml. The course of treatment consists of 30-35 injections. In case of painful injections, 0.5 ml of a 2% solution of novocaine is preliminarily injected. Repeated courses of treatment are carried out after a 2-3-month break. In the treatment of persons suffering from bronchial asthma, administered for 10-15 days, 1-1.5 ml every day, and then 1 time in 2 days; in total, 30-35 injections are made per course. Aloe leaf extract is produced in 1 ml ampoules. Store in a dark cool place. Aloe linimentum (Linimentum Aloës) – creamy mass of light cream color, peculiar smell. It is used to prevent and treat skin lesions during radiation therapy. For prophylactic purposes, liniment is applied to the skin after each exposure; for therapeutic purposes, it is applied in a thin layer on the affected surface 2-3 times a day and covered with a gauze napkin. Aloe juice (Succus Aloës) is a slightly cloudy liquid of light orange color, bitter taste and spicy smell. Under the influence of light and air darkens. Juice is obtained by squeezing crushed fresh aloe leaves. The resulting liquid is filtered, boiled at 100°C for 5-10 minutes, poured into settling tanks, where alcohol is added, and left in a cool place for 14-15 days. After settling, the juice is decanted, filtered and a preservative is added. It consists of: 80 ml juice from freshly harvested aloe leaves, 20 ml 95% ethyl alcohol and 0.5% chlorobutanol hydrate. It is used for gastritis, gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, spastic and atonic constipation, chronic colitis, and also as an external remedy for the treatment of acute and chronic purulent diseases. Take 1 teaspoon 2-3 times every day 20-30 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 15-30 days. For external use, it is prescribed in the form of lotions and direct irrigation of wounds. Aloe juice is stored in a cool, dark place. Aloe juice according to the Filatov method. Biostimulation according to the Filatov method is carried out as follows: freshly cut green aloe leaves are washed with water and kept in the dark at 4-8°C (in the refrigerator) for 12-15 days. According to the theory of biogenic stimulants, in plant tissues, the therapeutic effect of the product is enhanced. Aloe syrup with iron (Sirupus Aloës cum ferro). Slightly turbid syrupy liquid from light orange to brown in color, sour reaction, bittersweet metallic taste. Contains ferrous chloride solution containing 20% iron, dilute hydrochloric acid, citric acid, aloe vera juice syrup. The drug stimulates blood formation and is prescribed for hypochromic anemia. Take 1/2-1 teaspoon in 1/4 glass of water 2-3 times daily. The course of treatment is 15-30 days. Store in a cool place. Turbidity and sediment that appear during storage on the walls and bottom of the bottle do not interfere with use. In the presence of a flocculent precipitate that does not break into a uniform turbidity with shaking, the product is not used. Liquid aloe extract (Extractum Aloës fluidum). Aqueous extract from biostimulated aloe leaves. Take 1 teaspoon 3-4 times every day for 30-45 days. The course of treatment is repeated 3-4 times a year. Coated tablets of aloe (Tabulettae Aloës obductae) contain 0.05 g of crushed canned aloe tree leaf; released in a pack of 20 pcs. It is used as a biogenic stimulant in complex treatment for a number of diseases that occur against the background of reduced body resistance. Take 1 tablet 3 times every day 15-20 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 4 weeks. Aloe emulsion is a homogeneous thick mass of white or light cream color with a characteristic odor. A little yellow in the light. Store in orange glass jars in a place protected from light at a temperature not exceeding 5-10°C. ♦ Aloe juice from fresh leaves: cut off the lower leaves, thoroughly washed with boiled water, cut into small lamellar pieces 0.2-0.3 mm in size, placed in gauze and squeezed manually or with a juicer. Accepted fresh. ♦ Aloe juice from fresh leaves. Fresh juice of leaves aged in the dark is mixed with lard and honey according to the following recipe: lard (or goose fat), butter, honey, cocoa powder – 100 parts each, aloe leaf juice – 15 parts; 1 tablespoon of this mixture is stirred into 200 ml of hot milk. Taken 2 times every day as a biostimulant. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: Aloe laxative products should not be used for hemorrhoidal, uterine bleeding and menstruation, as they can provoke bleeding due to a rush of blood to the abdominal organs, also during long periods of pregnancy. It is not recommended to use them for diseases of the liver, kidneys and bladder, for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and people over 40 years of age.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
It has been cultivated in the humid subtropics of Transcaucasia since the 40s of the 19th century as an annual transplant culture or a perennial culture in closed ground (in greenhouses, in glazed soil sheds). When cultivated in Georgia, cuttings are rooted in August-September in greenhouses. After 1-1.5 years in the spring, the rooted seedlings are planted in a nursery for growing, in the fall the seedlings are transferred to closed ground, and the next spring they are planted on industrial plantations. When transplanting into open ground, they are placed according to the scheme 70 × 30 or 70 × 50 cm. The roots are dipped in a dung-clay mash before planting. Leaves are harvested (in October – November), which have reached a length of at least 15 cm. During the season, the collection is repeated up to 15 times. Plantations are used for 5 years, in the last year of culture, all leaves are cut off for raw materials, and the tops of plants are taken for rooting. In room and greenhouse conditions, reproduction can be carried out all year round. The cuttings are dried for several days before planting, and then rooted in sand and planted in a mixture of turf, leaf, humus soil and sand, taken in equal proportions.