Botanical characteristic. The madder family. Perennial herbaceous plant with a weak, thin stem, 60-100 cm long. The main root is powerful, brown in color, located horizontally, and at a depth it branches into roots of the second order. Whorled leaves, 4-6 per whorl, lanceolate, elliptical or ovate. Stems and leaves (especially below) pubescent. Flowers small, yellow. Blooms from June to autumn. The fruits ripen in September – November (color table VII – 2).
Spreading. Homeland madder dye – the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Iran and Afghanistan. It occurs in the Dagestan and Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics, the Azerbaijan SSR, in the Georgian SSR, etc. It grows on coastal plains, hilly sands, along river valleys, on mountain slopes and foothills. Introduced into industrial culture.
Medicinal raw materials. Use rhizome with roots. Harvesting is carried out in early spring (March – the first half of April) or at the end of the growing season (August – before frost). Roots with rhizomes are dug up, the aerial part is separated, shaken off the ground without breaking off, quickly laid out for drying in a thin layer under sheds or in well-ventilated attics, or placed in dryers at a temperature within 45 ° C. At the same place, harvesting is carried out with an interval of 2-3 years.
Chemical composition. Madder roots contain up to 6% anthraquinones, of which the main one is ruberitric acid, which consists of d-xinose, d-glucose and alizarin. There are other anthraquinones – haliosin, purpurin, purpuroxanthin, pseudopurpurine, rubiadin, rubianide, etc. In addition, madder rhizomes contain citric acid, as well as malic, tartaric, proteins, sugars, pectin substances.
pharmacological properties. Galenic products of madder dye have antispasmodic and diuretic effects. They contribute to the loosening of calcium and magnesium phosphate and oxalate salts formed in the kidneys and bladder, but do not act on calculi consisting of uric acid salts (ureates). At the same time, they relax the muscles of the ureters and facilitate the passage of small stones. The mechanism of these phenomena is due to the fact that the coloring substances of the plant interact with potassium phosphate, which leads to loosening and crumbling of stones, with the subsequent release of small stones and sand from the kidneys and urinary tract.
Application. Madder extract or tablets are prescribed for urolithiasis to reduce spasms and facilitate the discharge of small stones. Extract or tincture of madder roots are part of the complex product of cystenol, produced in Czechoslovakia. After the use of madder or cystenol products, the urine turns reddish (if the urine is brown-red, the dosage of the product is reduced). Galenic forms of madder are contraindicated in renal failure, gastric ulcer, glomerulonephritis.
Approximate dose: Calves 1 tablet 3 times daily. Before use, the tablet is dissolved in a glass of warm water and soldered through a rubber bottle.