Perennial (in culture — annual) herbaceous, densely covered with silvery-gray hairs, a plant of the labium family. The stem is erect, branched, 20-50 cm tall, woody at the base. The leaves are petiolate, small, opposite, elliptical or blade-shaped, entire, with numerous glands. The flowers are small, irregular, bisexual, collected in oblong spike-shaped bundles, placed 3-5 at the ends of the main stem or its branches; corolla indistinctly bilobed, white, pale purple or pink. The fruit consists of 4 one-seeded nut-shaped lobes. Blooms in July – September.
Distribution . It comes from South-West Asia and North Africa. On the territory of Ukraine, it is grown as an essential oil, medicinal and garden plant.
Procurement and storage . Marjoram herb (Herba Majoranae) is used for medicinal purposes. Raw materials are harvested during the flowering of the plant, cutting off the leafy part of the stems. The collected grass is tied into bundles and hung to dry in a ventilated room or in the shade outdoors. Artificial drying is carried out at a temperature of 35-40°. After drying, the leaves and inflorescences are separated from the stem parts and stored in well-closed jars or cans. 10% of dry raw material is obtained.
The plant is unofficial .
Chemical composition . Marjoram grass contains essential oil ((15-0.70%), tannins (0.9%), rutin (127 mg %), carotene (up to 5.5 mg %), ascorbic acid (up to 44 mg %), pectin, pentosans, mucilage and bitters.The main components of the essential oil are terpinene, pinene, sabinene, terpineol, terpinenol and borneol.
Pharmacological properties and use. Garden marjoram has a calming effect on the central nervous system, stimulates the activity of the stomach and intestines, reduces spasms in colitis, exhibits choleretic and diuretic effects. An infusion of marjoram herb is taken internally for various neuroses, migraine, nervous insomnia, achilles, vomiting, stomach pains, intestinal colic and flatulence, to stimulate appetite and as a means to regulate menstruation. Externally, in the form of baths, marjoram is used for itching and urticaria. In the latter case, oral treatment is also carried out at the same time. In Bulgarian folk medicine, garden marjoram is used along with common motherwort. Marjoram is also used as a seasoning in cooking and canning, for the production of liqueurs and liqueurs, and as a raw material for extracting fragrant essential oil (Oleum Majoranae).
Medicinal forms and applications. Internally – herbal infusion (1 tablespoon of raw material per 400 ml of boiling water, infuse for 1 hour, strain) half a glass 4 times a day before meals;
2 teaspoons of a mixture (in proportion) of garden marjoram grass, medicinal sage leaves and peppermint and spike lavender flowers are infused for 20 minutes in a glass of boiling water and drunk once in the evening after a meal with gastro-cardiac symptom complex.
Externally – herbal infusion (100-200 g of raw material per 2-3 liters of boiling water) for a therapeutic general bath.