Botanical characteristic. The family of liars. A thorny shrub or small tree with red-brown bark on trunks and branches, with spines up to 4 cm long. Young branches, leaves densely covered with silvery-white scales. The leaves are alternate, short-petiolate, linear-lanceolate or elliptical. The flowers are fragrant on short pedicels, 2-3 in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a false drupe, within 2 cm long, with mealy pulp, edible. Blooms in May – June. The fruits ripen in September.
Spreading. It occurs in the southern regions of the European part of the USSR, in the desert and semi-desert regions of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, in the Transcaucasus, in the east of the North Caucasus along the banks of rivers and lakes, on hilly sands. Widely cultivated in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the USSR.
Medicinal raw materials. Harvest the fruits, leaves and bark of the plant. The fruits are harvested as they ripen, the bark – in the spring during the period of sap flow, the leaves – during flowering.
Chemical composition. The bark contains alkaloids (eleaginine, tetrahydroharmol, etc.), tannins and dyes. The fruits contained protein, up to 40% carbohydrates, of which 20% fructose, tannins and mucous substances, potassium and phosphorus salts, organic acids, vitamin C and other compounds.
Pharmacological properties and Application. Loch has astringent and antidiarrheal properties. It is used for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, manifested by diarrhea, especially in calves, with catarrhs of the gastrointestinal tract. Crushed sucker leaves are applied to festering wounds for faster cleansing and healing. Approximate dose of sucker fruits for calves is 3 g. It is prescribed in the form of a decoction.