Botanical characteristic. Compositae family. Biennial herbaceous plant. The root is fleshy, slightly branched. The stem is straight, ribbed, reddish, strongly branched in the upper part, up to 180 cm high. The leaves are very large, green above, grayish felt below, gradually decreasing in volume towards the top of the stem. The flowers are dark purple, collected in a basket with tenacious hooked wrappers Blooms in July -August.
Spreading. It grows everywhere in vegetable gardens, along ravines, along roads, along river banks, in gardens, in weedy places and wastelands, in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, in the Far East, in Siberia, in the South Urals .
Medicinal raw materials. Roots and leaves are used. The roots are collected from young plants (the first year of development) at the end of summer, after flowering, and the leaves – during the flowering period. The dug roots are thoroughly cleaned from the ground, the aerial parts are cut off and washed well in water. Thick roots are cut lengthwise and dried in the shade in the open air, in dryers or in well-ventilated rooms. The leaves are dried in the usual way. Ready raw materials are stored for no more than a year.
Chemical composition. The roots of the plant contain up to 45% inulin polysaccharide, essential oil, tannins, proteins, organic acids (palmitic and stearic), bitter, resinous and other substances. Tannins, essential oil, mucus, ascorbic acid were found in the leaves.
Pharmacological properties and Application. Burdock is widely used in many states. Preparations from the roots are mainly used as a diuretic and diaphoretic (antipyretic) agent for kidney and bladder stones, gastritis and peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum.
Burdock is a recognized remedy for the treatment of various skin diseases. The fresh leaves of the plant have antibacterial properties. With furunculosis and some skin diseases, especially pustular, itching, an infusion of burdock roots is recommended externally and internally. In addition, an infusion of roots or leaves is used for rinsing with inflammatory diseases of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and pharynx. Fresh burdock leaves are used as a wound healing agent, applying them to damaged (burn, cut, abrasion) or inflamed skin. In the absence of fresh leaves, dried leaves are used, which are soaked in warm water before use. In veterinary practice, burdock root infusion is used as a diuretic for diseases with symptoms of congestion and edema. Doses inside:horses and cattle 15-20 g, dogs 0.2-1 g.