At the mention of linden, the image of an old linden alley in the park, planted a hundred or two hundred years ago, immediately arises. Linden is a deciduous tree, reaching a height of 25, rarely – 45 m. It is characterized by a large diameter of the trunk – 2-3, sometimes up to 5 m. The bark of a young linden is gray-brown, on old trunks it is dark, and it cracks along the edges. The crown of the tree is spherical, cylindrical or pyramidal, densely covered with leaves. The leaves are alternate, double-rowed, large, round-heart-shaped or broadly ovate, toothed, petiolate. The flowers are bisexual, white or yellowish, fragrant. Collected in shield-shaped inflorescences. They usually bloom in July. The fruit is a nut.
This tree lives a long time: some individuals live to the age of 1200-1300 years, and on average – 300-400 years. The heart-leaved linden forms almost pure linden forests on the western slope of the Ural Mountains and in the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia. Other types of linden (Amur, Manchurian, Siberian) grow in their respective geographical regions. In Ukraine, in addition to the heart-leaved linden, which is the most common species and occurs throughout the territory in forests and shrubs, the following species grow: Caucasian linden (T. begoniifolia) — in the mountains of Crimea; downy linden (71 tomentosa) – in broad-leaved forests and among shrubs in Odesa region and Transcarpathia; broad-leaved linden (T. platyphyllos) — in mixed and broad-leaved forests of Western Ukraine. All types of linden are widely used in landscaping cities – they are grown in gardens and parks, botanical gardens and have the same properties,
Linden is a medicinal, honey-bearing, food and technical plant. For medicinal purposes, flowers are collected from wild and cultivated linden trees during flowering. Flowers are cut with scissors or secateurs. Inflorescences are harvested together with bracts, the so-called “linden flower”.
Inflorescences affected by rust or damaged by leaf eaters should not be collected. Darkened bracts and inflorescences are removed from the collected flowers. Raw materials are dried in the shade outdoors or in well-ventilated rooms. You cannot dry the inflorescences in the sun. The shelf life of finished raw materials is 2 years. Linden flowers are available in specialized pharmacies.
Linden flowers contain essential oil, glycosides, saponins, coumarin fraxin, tannins, carotene (provitamin A), mucus, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), micro and macro elements.
Medicines prepared from linden flowers increase diuresis (urine secretion), have a diaphoretic, soothing and anti-inflammatory effect. They also stimulate the secretion of gastric juice, increase the secretion of bile and facilitate its outflow.
Infusion of linden flowers has long been used in scientific medicine for colds, fevers, as well as for flu and bronchitis. Infusions are often used for inflammation of the kidneys and bladder. Preparations of linden flowers have sedative properties: they are used as a sedative in case of increased nervous excitability.
In folk medicine, linden blossom infusion is used to treat headaches and hysteria; it also helps with epilepsy, as well as cough, stomach and intestinal pains. Externally, the infusion of linden blossoms is used for rinsing with stomatitis, gingivitis, sore throat, laryngitis, and in the form of lotions and poultices — for edema, skin ulcers, inflammation of hemorrhoids, rheumatism and gout. In addition, this remedy is used for inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs. To alleviate the condition of patients with nervous ailments, they take linden blossom baths. Linden flowers are part of diaphoretic and diuretic teas, preparations for the treatment of diseases of the stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, and bladder.
In addition to medicinal properties, linden also has excellent honey-bearing properties. The sugar content in the nectar secreted by 100 linden flowers ranges from 50 to 200 mg. In the areas where the heart-leaved linden is distributed, one bee colony collects up to 10-15 kg of honey. The honey productivity of one hectare of plantations reaches 800-1000 kg.
Linden honey, the so-called lipets, belongs to the highest quality varieties. It is light, with a delicate taste and aroma, crystallizes into a white homogeneous mass. Honey collected from Far Eastern linden species has a creamy shade, very delicate taste.
In agriculture, people have long used linden and linden bark, usually from heart-leaved linden, for the production of loam, from which mats and lantukhas were made. Lychaks, baskets, baskets, sieves and other products were woven from linden bark.
Linden seeds contain a sweet edible fatty oil that tastes like almonds.
Infusion of linden blossom. A tablespoon of raw materials per 200 ml of boiling water. Insist for 10 minutes, filter. Drink hot 1-2 glasses 2-3 times a day after meals.
Infusion of linden blossom (external). 6 tablespoons of raw materials per 200 ml of boiling water. Insist for 10 minutes, filter. For rinsing the mouth and throat, as well as for wiping the face with oily skin.