A small (3-5 m tall) evergreen fruit tree of the root family. Young branches are reddish-purple. The leaves are leathery, alternate, ovate or elliptic, pointed, articulated with petioles. The flowers are bisexual, in the axils of the leaves, single or paired, sometimes in tassels at the ends of the branches; petals are white, pale pink outside, very bent. The fruit is berry-like, ovoid or oval, with a beak at the top, light yellow. Blooms in March – April.
Spread. Unknown in the wild. In Ukraine, it is cultivated as a greenhouse fruit plant.
Raw material . The fruits of the plant are used for medicinal purposes.
Chemical composition . The fruit pulp contains citric acid (6-8%), sugars (up to 3.5%), ascorbic acid (up to 90 mg%), vitamins A, B1 and B2 , flavonoids, coumarin derivatives, sesquiterpenes, pectins , potassium and copper salts and other substances. The skin of the fruit contains essential oil (up to 0.6%) and flavonoids. The main components of the essential oil are terpene limonene (up to 90%) and aldehyde citral (3-6%).
Properties and use. The healing properties of lemons are due to the presence of a significant amount of vitamins in them. The use of lemons (in its natural form, with tea, in the form of juice diluted with water) is indicated for hypovitaminosis C and B, febrile conditions, impaired mineral metabolism, kidney stone disease, gout and rheumatism. As an external remedy, juice diluted with water is used for rinsing with inflammation of the oral cavity and pharynx. When vomiting in pregnant women, a freshly cut lemon is applied to the pit under the breast (as a laxative). The face is wiped with fresh natural juice (a piece of lemon) to remove comedones (Comedones faciei); to enhance the effect, first take a steam bath. The essential oil extracted from the skin of the fruit is used as a means to improve the taste and smell of medicines, in the food and confectionery industry, and in perfumery. in connection due to the high content of citric acid, the use of lemons should be limited or excluded from the diet altogether in diseases of the stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, biliary tract and pancreas (acute and chronic pancreatitis). It should be emphasized that excessive and irrational use of lemons can harm even a healthy person.
Medicinal forms and applications . Externally – a face mask for seborrhea: beat the white of one egg with 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, apply to the face, wash off with warm water after 25-30 minutes (the procedure is carried out 1-2 times a week).