A small evergreen tree with a pyramidal or spreading crown, up to 2.5-4 m tall, of the rue family. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate, with unwinged petioles. The flowers are axillary with purple petals on the outside, with a delicate delicate aroma. The fruit is berry-like, 6-9 cm long, 4-6 cm in diameter, with a nipple at the top, light yellow in color, with a crust that is difficult to separate.
It does not grow wild in Russia, it is cultivated in Western Georgia.
Medicinal raw materials are fruits. They contain citric acid (6.9-8.1%), sugars (2-3.5%), vitamins A, B1, B2 P and C (45-83 mg%), hesperedin dye. The peel of the fruit contains essential oil (0.4-0.6%). Fruit seeds contain essential oil and bitter substance limonin, branches and leaves – essential oil (0.09-0.24%). The bark contains citronitin glycoside – citronitin.
The therapeutic effect is explained by the presence of citric oil and citric acid, which is widespread in many plants: for example, in lemon its content reaches 6%, and in wild pomegranate juice – 9%. In animal organisms, citric acid, along with other organic acids – malic and succinic – plays an important role in metabolism, participates in the citric-acid Krebs cycle, which occupies an intermediate position in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Important in the therapeutic effect of lemons is ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Despite all kinds of conditions for growing lemons in Ukraine, Georgia, as well as at home, the content of ascorbic acid in lemons remains quite high.
At home, juice is obtained using a juicer or manually. Lemon juice is used for salt deposits, including uric acid (gout), for edema of cardiac origin. in infectious and viral diseases. Lemons are also useful for low acidity of gastric juice, for example, for hypocidic gastritis.
Lemon oil. Obtained from pressed fresh fruit peel. In appearance, it is a clear, colorless or slightly greenish-yellow liquid with a lemon odor and a spicy bitter taste. Store in dark, well-corked bottles, filled to the brim, in the form of a 10% alcohol solution. When standing, the oil becomes thick and rancid. Used to correct the taste and smell of medicines.