Mullein (veterinary practice)

There are 46 species of mulleins growing on the territory of the USSR, of which 10 have the widest distribution. This is a tall, medicinal, ordinary, magnificent, mealy, cockroach, Dzungarian, black, purple and panicled mullein.

Popular names: divina, royal scepter, bear’s ear.

Botanical characteristic. Family norichnikovye. All mulleins are biennial herbaceous, rarely semi-shrub plants. In the first year they form a rosette of basal leaves, and in the second – a tall flowering stem. Leaves opposite, entire, moderately or strongly pubescent with glandular hairs. The stems are straight, thickened upwards, with few or almost leafless leaves, sometimes branching towards the top. Flowers solitary or in bunches, yellow, purple, rarely black. Blooms in June – July.

Common mullein -Verbascum thapsus L. The whole plant is covered with ash-white dense felt pubescence. The stem is straight. The inflorescence is a dense, spiky raceme. The flowers are yellow. Blooms in June – July. Mealy mullein -Verbascum lychnitis L. The stem is erect, ribbed-striped, leafy, branched in the upper part. The plant is covered with glandular hairs. The inflorescence is a strongly branched pyramidal panicle. Blooms in June-July. Black mullein -Verbascum nigrum L. The stem is erect, leafy, blackish-red, sparsely covered with branched hairs. The inflorescence is a dense raceme, sometimes with lateral branches. Blooms in June-July.

Distribution – the European part of the USSR, the Urals, Western Siberia, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Plants are unpretentious, grow along the edges of forests, on rocky slopes, in wastelands, singly or form colonies, often found on old arable land where cattle graze, on railway slopes.

Medicinal raw materials. Collect the aerial part (usually whisks) in dry, clear weather. Dry quickly in the shade, in warm, darkened rooms. Store in well-closed glass jars for no more than 2 years.

Chemical composition. Corollas of flowers contain 2.5% mucus, within 11% sugar (of which 3.5% glucose), 11-12% other carbohydrates, saponins, traces of essential oils, gum, coumarin, carotene, vitamin C, malic and phosphoric acids , alkaloids, flavonoids, etc.

pharmacological properties. Studies conducted at the Department of Pharmacology of the Troitsk Veterinary Institute showed that galenic forms of purple, dzhungarian, oriental and mealy mullein increase blood pressure and stimulate cardiac activity. The biologically active substances of these plants (flavonoids and glycosaponins) also raise the level of blood pressure, increase the amplitude of heart contractions and enhance its bioelectrical activity. On the electrocardiogram, the most regular changes concerned an increase in R wave voltage, lengthening of the R — R and T — P intervals, and a decrease in the systolic index. Infusion of purple mullein increases diuresis and saluresis, stimulates the motor activity of the small intestine. Mullein preparations have low toxicity.

Based on the studies conducted, galenic forms of violet, oriental and mealy mullein at a dose of 0.1 g/kg as a cardiotonic agent are recommended for clinical trials, and violet – as a cardiotonic, diuretic and tonic gastrointestinal tract.

Application.Mullein infusion is used for inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract, tuberculosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as a diuretic for nephrolithiasis, externally as an analgesic for burns, felons. Corollas of mullein flowers are prescribed as an emollient, expectorant and enveloping agent for inflammation of the respiratory organs, accompanied by a dry cough. This effect of the plant is due to the presence of saponins and mucus. It is prescribed for cough, bronchial catarrh, shortness of breath, asthma, etc. Mullein flowers are part of the chest collection, which is included in the pharmacopoeias of many countries of the world. In veterinary medicine, a decoction of mullein is given to horses from “opion”, to cattle with “loss of milk”, to sheep it is mixed with salt and given for colds and coughs. Approximate dose: 0,

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