(Carum carvi); Celery family (Ariaceae), or Umbrella family (Umbelliferae); ordinary cumin
This is a very well-known spicy food and medicinal plant. Biennial, rarely perennial, 40-80 cm tall, sometimes up to 100 cm. The root is large, spindle-shaped. The stem is smooth, hollow, branched, forms many shoots that end in inflorescences. In the first year of life, a rosette of two- and three-lobed leaves grows, and in the second – flower-bearing stems. The lower leaves on the stems are long-petiolate, the upper ones are sessile. The flowers are small, regular, bisexual, bloom in June-July. The fruit is a dicot, ripens in August and splits into two brown-gray hemispheres.
Cumin was used as a food and medicinal plant as early as the 8th century BC. in Asia Minor. In the Middle Ages, it entered Europe and spread widely, becoming wild in some places. Now it occurs in dry meadows and sparse forests in the European part of Russia and Siberia. In Ukraine, wild cumin grows throughout the territory on the edges of forests, forest glades, meadows, and ravines. It is grown as an essential oil plant on special plantations.
Cumin fruits are used for medical purposes. The plant is collected after part of the umbrellas have turned brown, cut with a sickle or secateurs, tied into bundles and dried under shelter in the air. Then the grass is threshed, and the fruits are winnowed on sieves to remove debris and impurities. The raw material is suitable for use within three years. Cumin fruits, cumin oil and cumin water are sold in specialized pharmacies.
The fruits contain up to 8% essential oil, fatty oil (over 20%), proteins (up to 23%), flavonoids, resinous and tannic substances, mineral salts.
The fruits have bactericidal, antispasmodic, analgesic, expectorant and choleretic properties, in addition, they increase intestinal peristalsis. Fruit infusion is used as a carminative for flatulence. This remedy improves digestion, stimulates appetite and promotes better milk secretion in nursing mothers. Cumin fruits are part of many carminative, stomachic and soothing teas.
As a spice, cumin is added to meat dishes, especially often to roast pork and lamb. Fruits are also used in the bakery industry to flavor bread, they are put in pickles and sauerkraut. Chopped rhizomes are used to flavor soups and broths, and vitamin salads are made from young leaves.
Fruit infusion. 20 g of chopped fruits per 200 ml of boiling water. Insist for 20-30 minutes, filter. Take 1/2-1/3 cup 2-3 times a day before meals. As a carminative, it is taken after meals.
Cumin oil (pharmacy product). 1-2 drops per piece of sugar three times a day for intestinal colic in children. For babies, cumin water is used for this purpose (available in pharmacies).