Perennial herbaceous plant of the cetacean family. The stems are numerous, simple, erect, densely leafy, 40-50 cm tall. Leaves alternate, entire, obovate to lanceolate or linear; the lower leaves are not collected in a rosette, they are smaller or the same as the upper leaves. The flowers are bisexual, irregular, collected in multi-flowered (up to 30-50 flowers) apical tassels; corolla pink, blue to purple or white, 14-15 mm long. The fruit is a two-nest box flattened on the sides. Blooms in May – July.
Spread. Big whales are found in the Crimea on limestones.
Raw. The whole plant (Herba Polygalae, synonym — Herba Amarellae) is used to make medicines. It is collected at the beginning of flowering together with the roots. Dry raw materials in the open air (in the shade or in the sun) or in a well-ventilated room.
The plant is unofficial.
Chemical composition. The plant contains saponin substances (senegin, polygallic acid), haulterine glycoside, tannins, fatty and essential oils.
Pharmacological properties and use . Large sedges are used as an effective expectorant for acute and chronic diseases of the lungs and upper respiratory tract (laryngitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and pneumonia). In addition, the plant is used for lack of appetite, catarrh of the gastrointestinal tract, for mucous diarrhea with mucus secretion and as a means to increase the amount of milk in lactating women. As an external remedy, cattails are used to treat boils and eczema.
Medicinal forms and applications .
Internally – infusion (1 teaspoon of raw material per 400 ml of boiling water, infuse for 2 hours, strain) half a glass 4 times a day before meals.
Externally , the mushy mass obtained after filtering the infusion is used for poultices. Preparations for large cetaceans are non-toxic, without side effects.