\rSynonym: Indian hemp.
\rDescription . A perennial herbaceous plant with a well-developed root system, including a large number of offspring roots from the kutrovy family (Arosupaseae). The stems are strongly branched, fibrous, bluish-green, and reddish-brown in the upper part, up to 1.5 m high. The leaves are short-leaved, entire-marginal, glabrous. The leaf blade is up to 15 a long and up to 4 cm wide. The flowers are small, greenish-white, collected in semi-umbellate inflorescences. The fruit is narrow, long, up to 520 cm, leaflet varies from yellow to dirty purple. Seeds numerous, up to 35 mm long. The weight of 1000 seeds is within 0.50.6 g. It blooms in June-August, the fruits ripen in September-October.
\rMedicinal raw materials: roots and rhizomes.
\rbiological features . Hemp kendyr has a long growing season, up to 180-190 days, as a result of which, in the more northern regions of the non-chernozem zone, it often does not reach the fruit formation phase. The above-ground part dies off for the winter.
\rHabitat. It grows in the mountains, rising to a height of 2 thousand meters above sea level.
\rSpreading. Kendyr comes from the temperate zone of North America.
\rComposition of active substances. The main active ingredient, which is found in the roots and rhizomes of hemp kendyr, is the cardiac glycoside cymarin, which is similar in chemical composition to strophanthin contained in different types of strophanthus (Strophantus Kosh be O 1 and v.), growing in the tropical countries of Africa. Cymarin as a substitute for strophanthin was first isolated from the roots of hemp kendyr by the German scientists Taub and Fikevirt in 1911 (Salo, 1968). Its content in dry roots is approximately 0.30.5%.
\rIn addition, kendyr roots contain cinnocanoside, apocannoside, K-strophanthin, as well as a number of acids (stearic, palmitic, oleic, oleanolic), rubber, tannin. According to Turova (1967), “cymarin has a high biological activity. In 1 g of a substance there are 45,000 ICEs, or 6369 KEDs.
\rApplication. For the first time, kendyr began to be used in folk medicine in North America in the treatment of dropsy as a diuretic. In the same place, he was later introduced into scientific medicine. In Russia, it was known in the second half of the 19th century as a good heart remedy. However, later on, the kendyr was forgotten as an imported crop. And only as a result of the positive data obtained in recent years, VILR again proposed the kendyr for use.
\rRecent studies have shown that the product cymarin, obtained from rhizomes and roots of kendyr, has a selective effect on the human heart, similar to digitalis glycosides. In character, strength and speed of action, it is similar to strophanthin. Clinical observations on patients have established a positive effect of kendyr products even in the case when foxglove and strophanthus products did not have a therapeutic effect (Obukhov, 1965). Turova (1967) recommends taking cymarin for acute chronic insufficiency of various etiologies, accompanied by edema. It turns out to be most effective in myocarditis with IIIII degree compensation disorder, occurring with circulatory failure in infectious diseases. Cymarin is administered intravenously at a dose of 0.51 ml in 1520 ml of a 2040% glucose solution once a day; can be twice, but the daily dose should not exceed 1.5 ml. The course of treatment is ten twenty injections. In the presence of cumulation, it is necessary to take a break for two to three days.
\rAgricultural technology of cultivation . Site selection. Since hemp kendyr can grow in the same place for more than ten years, the area under it should be allotted on a field plot (i.e., outside the crop rotation), since it is advisable to operate its plantation for several years in a row.
\rSoil cultivation. It is recommended to plow the soil under the kendyr to a depth of 2530 cm.
\rApplication of fertilizers . On neutral and slightly acidic soils, it is recommended to apply 40 t/ha of manure and 4 c/ha of superphosphate as the main fertilizer; on soils with high acidity, 50 t/ha of manure and 8 centners/ha of phosphorus flour are applied.
\rReproduction. It is possible to propagate kendyr with seedlings grown in nurseries, as well as vegetative propagation by segments of roots and stem cuttings (green cuttings). The best of them is the method of propagation by segments of roots and rhizomes, which are plowed on 2-three-year-old plantations in early spring before the plants begin to grow. Then they are cut into pieces 210 cm long and planted. Best planted in early spring. With all this, the row spacing is 60 cm, which makes it possible to use mechanization when caring for plantations in the first two years of the crop.
\rFertile soils are allocated for growing seedlings. It is sown with seeders in a belt method with distances between belts of 5060 cm, and between lines of 2025 cm. Seeding rate is 1012 kg/ha. Seedlings are carefully looked after: they are systematically watered, weeded and fertilized twice during the growing season.
\rSeedlings are planted in a permanent place in late August or early spring of the next year.
\rPlantation care . In the first two years, row-spacing is loosened mechanically: at the beginning of summer on a tractor, at the end on horse-drawn.
\rIn the future, on transitional plantations, the herbage of the kendyr grows strongly and therefore it is recommended to plow row spacing there to a depth of 810 cm in early spring.
\rTo increase the yield of roots, both in the first year of life and on transitional plantations, top dressing is carried out with mineral fertilizers: the first top dressing is traditionally before the growth of shoots, the second before budding.
\rHarvest . It is best to remove the roots and rhizomes of the kendyr at the age of 30%. At this time, the harvest traditionally reaches 810 c/ha, the content of cymarin is within 0.2%, and the biological activity is within 190 ICE per 1 g.
\rFor convenience, the above-ground part of the kendyr is first mowed with reaping machines or mowers. Beveled stems are used as raw material for the production of coarse fiber, as well as fuel. After that, the roots and rhizomes are plowed up with beet lifters or plows without moldboards, and they are selected manually.
\rDrying. The harvested underground part of the kendyr is carefully cleaned from the remnants of stems and earth, cut into pieces 1015 cm long and dried in a dryer at a temperature of 5060 ° C, bringing the moisture content of the roots to 1314%.
\rPack. Packed in bales of 50 kg.
\rStorage of ready-made kendyr raw materials is carried out in a dry, well-ventilated area with strict observance of the rules for storing poisonous plants.
\rquality requirements. In accordance with VTU 159552, the roots and rhizomes of 2-three-year-old plants, dug out during the formation of buds, must be thoroughly washed from the ground, cut into pieces 1015 cm long, up to 1.5 cm in diameter. The outer shell of the roots must have a color from light -brown to red-brown. The color of the roots and rhizomes at the break is white or slightly cream; the taste is bitter, the smell is weak, peculiar. Allowed: moisture 14%; stems and leaves 3; organic parts of other plants 1; mineral impurities 1.5%. Biological activity is not less than 160 ICE in 1 g.