Fig (fig tree)

FIG (fig tree)


Monoecious or dioecious deciduous tree or branched shrub with smooth, light gray bark and lactifers in all organs. The leaves are alternate or opposite, simple, large, petiolate, entire or lobed. The flowers are unisexual, sitting in the cavity of the fleshy or pear-shaped overgrown axis of the inflorescence. Male flowers 2-6-separated with 2-6 stamens; within the flower bed of female flowers is five-lobed, the ovary is single-celled. Female inflorescences – figs, male – caprifigs. The fruits are small, numerous nuts enclosed inside the fig.

In the wild and wild state, it is found in Transcaucasia, Crimea and Central Asia on rocky open slopes. Bred in the gardens of the southern zone of the former USSR.

Medicinal raw materials are fruits harvested at maturity. Use seed – wine berries. Figs are very valuable because they contain a lot of sugar: fresh – 12.8-20.3%, dried – 56.6-62.9% (by dry weight), and individual varieties from Azerbaijan – up to 71%; quite a lot of proteins and vitamins, a lot of potassium salts (1161 mg%), calcium (227 mg%), magnesium (117 mg%) and much more. In addition, the fruits contain the plant enzyme ficin, which has the properties of fibrino-lysine, as well as an enzyme similar to lipodiastase, weakly acting in a neutral and well acidic environment, amylase and protease.

In scientific medicine, fig fruits, due to the content of finin, can be used to treat thromboembolic diseases, and due to the presence of a large amount of sugar and potassium, they are useful for patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Figs boiled in milk are used as a remedy for acute catarrhs ​​of the upper respiratory tract, tracheitis, bronchitis, and bronchiectasis.

In folk medicine, figs, in addition, are recommended for gastritis, chronic constipation, and also to improve blood composition, as an expectorant and diuretic, the beneficial effect of fig fruits in kidney stone disease is indicated. They are given to children for whooping cough and as a tasty nutrient. To do this, the fruits are boiled in milk and drunk without dosage.

A decoction of figs, jam and a coffee surrogate prepared from dried figs have a diaphoretic and antipyretic effect and have a beneficial effect on laryngitis, tracheitis and bronchitis.

The fruits have a disinfectant property, so they are often used by the people as an infusion for rinsing and for colds, abscesses, inflammation of the mucous membranes, they are especially useful for external use in cancer (prevent the development of the disease).

It is better to use fresh fruits, but dried ones are also useful; when applying for poultices, you first need to soak them in butter for a long time.

Figs are contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus, with acute inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic disorders of oxalic acid.

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