Wild strawberry – sunitsі lіsovі (harvesting and storage)

Wild strawberry – Fragaria vesca L. Ukrainian name – sunitsі lіsovі, popular names – polunichnik, polunishnik; bent grass, berry, berry.


Rosaceae family – Rosaceae.

For medicinal purposes, the fruits and leaves of wild strawberries are used.

It is found in most of Ukraine, except for the Steppe. There are quite a lot of strawberries in Transcarpathia, Prykarpattya, Rostochie-Opole, Polissya, in some places in the mountainous part of Crimea, also in the north of the forest-steppe regions. It grows in sparse forests and among shrubs, on forest edges and glades traditionally in the form of groups and spots. It is sometimes found on the slopes of gullies and river valleys, previously covered with forests. Often on cutting areas it forms thickets on tens and even hundreds of hectares. The main preparations are possible in Transcarpathian, Lvov, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil, in the north of Khmelnytsky, also in Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Sumy regions.

Stocks of raw materials are large. Tens of tons of fruits can be harvested annually, and even more leaves.

Wild strawberry is a perennial herbaceous plant with a short brown rhizome, thin uriculate roots and longish (up to 1-1.5 m) mustache shoots rooting at the nodes. Basal leaves in a rosette, long-petiolate, trifoliate. Simple leaflets sessile, ovate, coarsely toothed along the edge, bright green above with sparse hairs, gray below with thick silky hairs. Flowers in apical corymbose inflorescence of 3-5 flowers on a peduncle 5-20 cm high. Pedicels are covered with adpressed, upwardly directed hairs. Corolla white, up to 20 mm in diameter. Fruits – oval or conical “berries”, are easily removed. Blooms in May-June. The fruits ripen in late June – July.

It is not necessary to harvest other types of strawberries found on forest edges and clearings. Unlike wild strawberries, they have no above-ground shoots (whiskers) or are poorly developed. In addition, they differ in other features.

The fruits are harvested as they ripen, picking them without stalks and folding them, without compacting, into small baskets.

Dry in ovens or dryers at a temperature of 60-65 °, laying out a thin layer (2-3 cm) on the grates. The yield of dry raw materials is 14-16%.

According to OST 4388, the raw material consists of wide-conical dark red fruits with a length of 6 mm with deepened small elongated achenes. There is no smell. The taste is sour-bitter. Humidity is not higher than 13%. Not more than 5% is allowed in raw materials

crushed parts (mostly individual achenes), but 1% organic and mineral impurities.

Dry fruits are packed in bags of 50 kg. Store in dry, well-ventilated areas on pallets or racks. Fruits are easily damaged by barn pests. Storage period 3 years.

The leaves are harvested during flowering and fruiting, breaking them off without petioles.

Dry in attics under an iron roof or under sheds with good ventilation, spreading a thin layer (3-5 cm) on paper or cloth and stirring occasionally. The yield of dry raw materials is 20%.

According to FS 42 No. 134-72, the raw material consists of leaf blades 2.5-6 cm long and 1-4 cm wide, whole or broken, with petioles up to 1 cm long, green or dark green above, grayish or bluish-green below . The smell is weak, peculiar. The taste is astringent.’ Humidity is not higher than 13%. Not more than (percent) is allowed in raw materials: leaves with petioles longer than 1 cm – 5%, browned and blackened leaves – 2, crushed parts (passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm) – 5, other parts of strawberries (stems, fruits and etc.) – 1, organic impurities – 1. The storage period is one year.

The fruits contain organic acids (malic, citric, salicylic), tannins, pectin, essential oil, carotene, vitamin C, B, sugars, trace elements, etc. They are used as a small diuretic that helps to remove salts from the body, a remedy for gout, kidney and liver stones, atherosclerosis.

Widely used in the food industry. The leaves contain tannins, traces of alkaloids, vitamin C. They are used as a diuretic and anti-gout agent. Used in the form of infusions, is part of the fees.

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