A perennial herbaceous plant of the asteraceae (complex-flowered) family. It has a thick horizontal rhizome, from which thin numerous roots go down. The stem is thin, straight, ribbed, pubescent, branched in the upper part, 75-150 (200) cm high. Basal and lower stem leaves are large (up to 50 cm wide), long-petioled, kidney-cordate, pointed, at the base acuminate, unevenly toothed along the edge. Middle stem leaves have a triangular or sagittal-triangular shape, short petioled; petioles are broad-winged, with stem-wrapping large “ears”. Upper leaves are sessile, lanceolate, almost entire. The flowers are tubular, bright yellow, in 10-15-flowered cylindrical baskets, collected by thick shields. The fruit is an achene. Blooms in August.
Spread. Endemic of the Caucasus. It grows in meadows, on the edges of mountain forests, in shady, shady gorges.
Procurement and storage . Herbs (Herba Senecionis platyphylloides), collected during the flowering of the plant, as well as rhizomes with roots (Rhizoma cum radicibus Senecionis platyphylloides), which are harvested at the same time as the grass, or in autumn, when they contain the most alkaloids, are used to make medicines. The collected raw materials are dried in the open air, covering them for the night, or in dryers at a temperature of 45-50°. The shelf life of roots is 1 year, grass is 2 years.
Chemical composition . All parts of the plant contain alkaloids (platyphyllin, seneciphyllin, saracin, neoplatiphyllin and senecionine). The total amount of alkaloids is: in leaves – 0.49-3.5%, in stems – 0.2-1.2%, in rhizomes with roots – 2.2-4%, in seeds – up to 5%.
Pharmacological properties and use. In medical practice, the alkaloid platyphyllin is used. It is close to atropine in terms of its pharmacological action, but it is inferior to it in terms of potency. On the other hand, platyphyllin has an advantage over atropine because it is much less toxic. Platyphilin exhibits a cholinolytic and antispasmodic effect much stronger than atropine, suppresses the cholinoreactive systems of vegetative nodes, has a calming effect on the central nervous system, especially on the vasomotor centers. It is prescribed as an antispasmodic agent for acute gastric and intestinal spasms, peptic ulcer disease of the stomach and duodenum, cholecystitis, hepatic and renal colic, bronchial asthma, angina pectoris, etc., and in the treatment of eye diseases – as a pupil dilator. They use tartaric salt of platyphyllin — platyphyllin hydrotartrate. Platifiline hydrotartrate is part of Plavefin, palufin, tepafilin and other combined products. The alkaloid seneciphylline is used as a raw material for the synthesis of the diplacin product, which is used in surgical practice to relax skeletal muscles.
Medicinal forms and applications . For course treatment (10—15—20 days), platyphyllin hydrotartrate (Platyphyllini hydrotartras) is prescribed orally in the form of 0.003—0.005 g or 10—15 drops of a 0.5% solution 2—3 times a day, in suppositories 0.01 g 2 times a day, 20 drops of a 0.5-1% solution in micro-enemas 2-3 times a day.
To relieve acute ulcerative pains, as well as intestinal, hepatic and renal colic, platyfillin is injected under the skin in 1-2 ml of a 0.2% solution 2-3 times a day. Platyphyllin is contraindicated in glaucoma and organic diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys.