A low (up to 15-20 m) evergreen tree of the myrtle family. The bark of the trunk and skeletal branches is reddish-brown, on young shoots it is reddish-whitish. Swallows are silver-gray, heteromorphic: young – opposite, sessile, ovoid or almost round, heart-shaped at the base, 3-4 cm long and 3-5 cm wide; adults — opposite or alternate, almost sessile, from broadly ovate to broadly or narrowly lanceolate, leathery, 5—10 cm long and 1—3 cm wide. The flowers are bisexual, small, collected by 3 in axillary umbels. The fruit is a box. Blooms in November – December.
Spread. Eucalyptus ash is native to Australia and the island of Tasmania. In Ukraine, eucalyptus is grown as a decorative and essential oil plant in the Crimea.
Procurement and storage. Leaves (Folium Eucalypti) and one- or three-year-old shoots are used to make medicines. Leaves are harvested all year round, especially in summer. Young leaves begin to be harvested in November, when the essential oil has already accumulated in it. Dry the raw materials in the open air or in a well-ventilated room, spreading them in a thin layer and periodically stirring them. Artificially dried at a temperature of up to 40°. 42-43% of dry raw material is obtained. Eucalyptus leaves, as an aromatic raw material, are stored separately from other non-scented plants in multi-layered bags. Fresh one- or three-year-old shoots (together with leaves, buds and fruits), which are harvested from October to April, are used as raw materials for the production of essential oil (Oleum Eucalypti). Leaves and oil are sold by pharmacies. Plant pollen is also used for medicinal purposes.
Chemical composition. The leaves of the plant contain essential oil (up to 3%), flavonoids, tannins, ellagic acid, resins and wax. Other parts of the plant also contain essential oil. The main component of the essential oil is cineol monocyclic terpene with an intense oxidizing effect. Eucalyptus pollen contains proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins ( B1 , B2 , PP, C, biotin, folic acid, rutin), antibiotics and a growth stimulant.
Pharmacological properties and use. The main therapeutic property of eucalyptus is antiseptic. Its products have a harmful effect on streptococci and staphylococci, typhoid bacillus and paratyphoid A and B, dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, purulent and anaerobic pathogens, suppress the growth of dysenteric amoeba and trichomonads. In addition, the plant has pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, promotes rapid healing of wounds, has a pain-relieving, weak sedative and minor expectorant effect. Eucalyptus is also attributed with a general strengthening effect. Infusion, decoction and tincture are prepared from eucalyptus leaves. Decoction and tincture are taken orally as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent in case of acute intestinal infections and dyspeptic disorders and acute respiratory viral infections, inflammation of the gall bladder and urinary bladder. The anti-staphylococcal product chlorophyllipt is produced from eucalyptus leaves. It is produced in the form of 0.25% or 1% alcohol or 2% oil solutions. It is used as an external agent and internally (intravenously and orally). Externally, galenic eucalyptus products are used in the form of washes, rinses, lotions, wet tampons and douches. In surgical practice, they are used to treat abscesses, phlegmon, boils, osteomyelitis, purulent mastitis, open fractures, burns and frostbite; in dentistry — for stomatitis, gangrenous pulpitis, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity; in otorhinolaryngology — for tonsillitis, chronic rhinitis and pharyngitis, otitis externa, dermatitis and eczema of the external auditory canal, etc.; in gynecological practice – with colpitis, white hair and dysplasia of the cervix; in dermatology — with purulent rashes on the skin; in ophthalmology – with blepharitis. In the form of inhalations, galenic eucalyptus products are used for acute respiratory diseases, tracheitis and laryngitis. Eucalyptus oil is widely used in medical practice. It is used for the treatment of furunculosis, phlegmon, erosive-ulcerative lesions of the mucous membranes, for inhalation (for rhinitis, bronchitis, angina), rinsing (for diseases of the upper respiratory tract), rubbing (as a decongestant for myositis, radiculitis and plexitis) and as an antiparasitic remedy (for pediculosis, to repel mosquitoes, mosquitoes and ants). Eucalyptus oil is part of the combined preparations of eukatol, efcamon, ingakamfu, camphomen and pectusin (for their use, see the article Peppermint). Eucalyptus pollen has antipyretic, antibiotic and tonic properties,
Medicinal forms and applications .
Internally – a decoction of leaves (10 g or 2 tablespoons of raw material per 200 ml of boiling water) is drunk warm for a quarter of a glass 3 times a day after meals (for inhalation, dilute 1 tablespoon of the decoction with 1 glass of water);
tincture of leaves (5 parts of 70% alcohol are taken for 1 part of raw materials) take 15-20 drops 3 times a day after meals (for inhalation take 10-20 drops of tincture per 1 glass of water);
eucalyptus oil is prescribed 10-20 drops per 1 glass of water for inhalation;
Chlorophylliptum is taken orally in the form of a 1% alcohol solution of 3-5 ml 4 times a day in 30 ml of water 40 minutes before meals when carrying staphylococci in the intestines (with staphylococcal sepsis, peritonitis, pleurisy, pneumonia 0.25 % alcoholic solution of chlorophyllipt is injected (slowly!) intravenously at 2-4 ml 2-4 times a day, having previously diluted it with a sterile isotonic solution of sodium chloride in a ratio of 1:20).
Externally – tincture of leaves (prepared as in the previous recipe) is diluted in boiled water (1-2 teaspoons of tincture per 1 liter of water) and used for douching;
decoction of leaves (15 g of raw material per 200 ml of boiling water, boil for 3-4 minutes, settle several times, filter) dilute in boiled water (1 tablespoon of decoction per 1 glass of water) and use for rinsing, lotions, washing and douching;
chlorophyllipt is used locally for burns, phlegmons, trophic ulcers (lubrication with a 2% oil solution or 1% alcohol solution of chlorophyllipt, diluted with a 0.25% solution of novocaine in a ratio of 1:5) and for erosions of the cervix (lubrication or introduction of tampons moistened with 2% oil and 1% alcohol solutions or douching with a solution prepared by diluting 1 tablespoon of 1% alcohol solution with water);
eucalyptus oil, diluted with sunflower oil in a ratio of 1:50, is used to treat furunculosis, phlegmon, colpitis, cervical dysplasia (lubrication), as a decongestant for myositis, radiculitis, plexitis and other diseases (rubbing);
Inhalyptum — a combined product in an aerosol package for irrigation of the oral cavity for tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, aphthous and ulcerative stomatitis (irrigation for 1-2 seconds 3-4 times a day with a delay of the product in the oral cavity for 5-7 minutes);
powder against insect bites (consists of 2.5 g of eucalyptus oil, 5 g of talc and 32.5 g of starch), which is sprinkled on exposed parts of the body or rubbed into the skin.
It is contraindicated to use Ingalipt with increased sensitivity to sulfonamides and essential oils. Before using chlorophyllipt, it is necessary to check the patient’s individual sensitivity to the product. Possible allergic reactions!