Name: Datura Indian – Datura Indian (growing and cultivation)
Datura Indian (datura Indian) Datura innoxia Mill . (D. metel auct. pop L.)
\rSynonym: dope is harmless.
\rDescription. Perennial velvety-pubescent, powerful, grayish plant from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) up to 70-150 cm high. The root is taproot, thick, with a short thickened neck, with buds on it. Stem forked-branched, hollow, densely covered with hairs. The leaves are alternate, large, entire, petiolate, broadly ovate or oblong ovate, pubescent. The flowers are large, white, solitary, located in the forks of the stems. The calyx is long-tubular, densely pubescent, 810 cm long. The corolla is tubular-funnel-shaped, 1520 cm long. The fruit is a spherical capsule with a dense arrangement of thin knotted spines. Seeds are kidney-shaped, brownish or yellow. Weight 1000 seeds 1012 Blossoms in July October, bears fruit in August October.
\rMedicinal raw materials: unripe fruits (seeds and separately boxes without seeds).
\r\rbiological features. Datura Indian is a heat-loving, light-loving, soil-demanding plant with a long growing season (120-125 days).
\rHabitat. It grows mainly on soils rich in lime and humus.
\rDistribution . It grows wild in areas of South and Central America. In the wild state, it is found in the USSR in the Caucasus, in Central Asia.
\rIt is cultivated in the regions of the Krasnodar Territory, the Crimean Region and in Central Asia as an annual plant.
\rComposition of active substances . All parts of Indian dope contain the main alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The predominant one is scopolamine. Especially a lot of it up to 0.8% is found in the limits of fruits and seeds. Therefore, the raw materials for the production of scopolamine are unripe seeds and within the fruit.
\rApplication . Datura Indian preparations are used in the form of scopolamine as a sedative in acute mental disorder; in the treatment of parkinsonism (trembling paralysis); as an analgesic and hypnotic in surgical practice in combination with other therapeutic drugs and as an antiemetic in air and sea sickness. Scopolamine, contained in Indian Datura, unlike atropine and hyoscyamine, gives a more pronounced hypnotic and sedative effect.
\rAgricultural technology of cultivation . Site selection. Datura Indian under natural conditions grows on calcareous soils rich in humus. Therefore, in the irrigated conditions of southern Kazakhstan, dark medium loamy gray soils, free from weeds, especially perennials (such as wheatgrass and pigweed), are allotted for it. Unsuitable areas infected with pests of agricultural plants (beetle larvae, wireworms), as well as heavy clay and acidic soils.
\rThe best predecessors are black fallow or winter crops running on fertilized fallow. Row crops are also considered good predecessors.
\rSoil cultivation. Soil cultivation is carried out in the same way as for other tilled crops (in particular, as for Datura).
\rApplication of fertilizers. Under the main autumn (autumn) plowing, 2030 t / ha of humus are applied in a mixture with 2 t / ha of ammonium sulphate and 3 t / ha of superphosphate.
\rReproduction. Datura Indian is propagated by direct sowing of seeds into the soil in a row or nest method, in early spring to use moisture, later crops do not produce reliable shoots. Ordinary grain seeders are used (row spacing 60 cm). On the irrigated lands of South Kazakhstan, seeders with equipment for simultaneous cutting of irrigation furrows. Seeding depth is 45 cm on lighter soils and 34 cm on heavy soils. The seeding rate is 10 kg/ha.
\rPlantation care . In the conditions of irrigated regions of Southern Kazakhstan, in order to obtain good seedlings, watering is carried out at the rate of 8001000 m 3 /ha, otherwise, under these conditions, the topsoil dries up quickly. In order to save seedlings and young plants of Indian dope from weeds in the first period of growth, it is very important to carry out timely loosening of row spacings and weeding of rows. From the bud stage, the plant grows rapidly, and its lush foliage greatly shade the soil and suppress the growth of weeds. In the presence of dense seedlings, bouquets are carried out according to the scheme: cutout length 45 cm, bouquet length 25 cm.
\rTo ensure good growth, two top dressings are carried out during the summer: one when 57 true leaves appear at the rate of 30 kg / ha of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers, the second during budding at the rate of 30 kg / ha of nitrogen fertilizers.
\rDuring the growing season, up to five irrigations are carried out in irrigated areas at a rate of 10,001,100 liters of water. After each watering, row spacing is loosened and weeds are destroyed.
\rHarvest. The best period for a one-time mechanized combine harvesting of boxes is considered to be the beginning of their browning in the first and second forks of the stems.
\rHarvested by hand (with sickles) twice: at the beginning of the maturation of the boxes of the first fork and at the end of the growing season. At the same time, during the first period, in addition to ripened and browned seeds, green boxes of normal size and fairly hard are also removed. All remaining boxes are harvested at the end of the growing season.
\rDrying. After harvesting, the boxes are cut on root cutters and dried in fire dryers at a temperature of 4050 ° C or under sheds, and in sunny weather on open currents.
\rSeeds collected by combines, after drying, are cleaned on sorting, and those collected manually are separated from within the fruits on sieves with holes with a diameter of 56 mm.
\rThe seed yield is approximately within 1215 centners/ha, and the mass within the fruits is up to 58 centners/ha.