Indian dope – Indian dope

Datura Indian (Datura innoxia); Indian dope

 

Perennial (in culture — annual) herbaceous drooping plant of the nightshade family. The stem is straight, 70-150 cm tall, hollow, the fork is often branched, sometimes reddish-purple at the base. Leaves alternate, petiolate, large, entire, broad-ovate or elongated-ovate; the upper pairs are close together. The flowers are bisexual, regular, large, single, located in the forks of the stem; corolla with fused petals, white, funnel-shaped, with a bend, 15-20 cm long. The fruit is a spherical drooping capsule covered with thorns. Blooms in July-October, bears fruit in August-October.

Distribution . The homeland of Indian dope is Central and South America. In Crimea, it is grown as a medicinal plant.

Procurement and storage . Unripe fruits (seeds and separately fertilized) and leaves are used for medicinal purposes. Mechanized harvester harvesting of fruits is carried out in one go at the beginning of the browning of the boxes of the first and second branches of the stem. When harvesting by hand, the pods are cut with sickles twice: at the beginning of the ripening of the pods of the first branching and at the end of the growing season. The collected raw materials are immediately crushed on straw cutters, dried in the sun or in a dryer at a temperature of 40-50°, and then, using sieves, they are divided into two fractions: seeds and crushed pods (fertilizers). The shelf life of seeds is 2 years, fertilization is 1 year. The alkaloid scopolamine is obtained from the seeds and fruiting bodies. The leaves are prepared in the same way as from the ordinary dope.

Chemical composition . All parts of the plant contain scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropine and other tropane alkaloids. The main alkaloid of the plant is scopolamine, which is most abundant in fruits (0.38-0.41%) and seeds (up to 0.77%).

Pharmacological properties and use. The main active substance of Indian dope is scopolamine, which belongs to active peripheral m-cholinolytic agents; it also exhibits a central cholinolytic and sedative effect. Scopolamine gives a pronounced but short-lived mydriatic effect, relaxes the tone of smooth muscles, accelerates the rate of heart contractions, contributes to a decrease in the secretory function of the glandular apparatus. By affecting the cholinergic structures of the higher parts of the central nervous system, scopolamine interferes with the passage of nerve impulses to the motor neurons of the spinal cord. As a result, the alkaloid has a sedative, soporific and motor activity-reducing effect. It also has a depressing effect on the respiratory function, the ability to enhance the hypnotic effect of narcotic drugs, and an anticonvulsant effect. Scopolamine is used in neuropsychiatric practice for the treatment of parkinsonism, in diseases with muscle hyperkinesis and as a sedative in manic states; in ophthalmology – for iritis, iridocyclitis to dilate the pupils; in surgical practice — for preparation for anesthesia (in combination with morphine and other analgesics). The leaves of St. John’s wort, together with the leaves of the black and white belladonna, are part of anti-asthmatic cigarettes. Scopolamine is included in Aeron tablets, which are used for the prevention and treatment of sea and air sickness and attacks of Meniere’s disease, to reduce the secretion of saliva during dental operations. iridocyclites for pupil dilation; in surgical practice — for preparation for anesthesia (in combination with morphine and other analgesics). The leaves of St. John’s wort, together with the leaves of the black and white belladonna, are part of anti-asthmatic cigarettes. Scopolamine is included in Aeron tablets, which are used for the prevention and treatment of sea and air sickness and attacks of Meniere’s disease, to reduce the secretion of saliva during dental operations. iridocyclites for pupil dilation; in surgical practice — for preparation for anesthesia (in combination with morphine and other analgesics). The leaves of St. John’s wort, together with the leaves of the black and white belladonna, are part of anti-asthmatic cigarettes. Scopolamine is included in Aeron tablets, which are used for the prevention and treatment of sea and air sickness and attacks of Meniere’s disease, to reduce the secretion of saliva during dental operations.

Medicinal forms and applications .

Internally – tablets “Aeron” (Tabulettae “Aeronum”) 1-2 tablets per intake 30-60 minutes before the trip and in the future, if necessary, 1 more tablet after 6-12 hours;

and with Meniere’s symptom complex – 1 tablet 2-3 times a day (higher doses: for adults – 2 tablets once, daily – 4 tablets; for children 7-9 years old – 1 and 2 tablets, respectively, 10-14 years old – 1, 5 and 3 tablets, these tablets are not prescribed for children under 7 years old);

scopolamine hydrobromide (Scopolamini hydrobromidum) is prescribed orally or subcutaneously at 0.00025-0.0005 g or 0.5-1 ml of a 0.05% solution (higher doses for adults inside and under the skin: single 0.0005 g, daily — 0.0015 g).

Drug overdose causes strong excitement, hallucinations, thirst, dryness and other side effects. St. John’s wort preparations are contraindicated in glaucoma. The plant is very poisonous and should be used only under the supervision of a doctor.

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