Skelny oak – sessile oak

Name: Skelny oak – sessile oak

Skelny Oak (Quercus petraea); sessile oak

 

A monoecious plant of the beech family. The tree is 20-30 m tall. One-year branches are brown-green, bare or slightly pubescent at first. The leaves remain dry on the tree until spring, elongated-inverted-ovate, with a heart-shaped, wedge-shaped or rounded base, sinuous-coriaceous-bladed, scattered hairy on the underside along the veins; blades are rounded or oblong, there are 5-7 pairs of them. Flowers unisexual; stamens – with 6-8-parted perianth, in drooping earrings, pistillate – with 6-parted perianth, in few-flowered, erect earrings. The legs of the inflorescence with fruits are shorter than the petiole of the leaf. The fruit is a nut (acorn), surrounded by a cup for half to a third of its length. Blooms during April-May, bears fruit in September-October.

Distribution . Grows in forests, on limestones in Mountainous Crimea; in the southwest of the Forest Steppe and very rarely in Polissia (Zhytomyr region).

Procurement and storage . They use bark (Cortex Quercus), acorns and galls, which are formed on the leaves. The bark is harvested in the spring during sap movement, removing it from young branches and thin trunks (up to 10 cm in diameter). For this, ring-shaped cuts are made every 30 cm, which are connected by longitudinal cuts, after which the bark is easily removed. Dry the bark under a tent or in a room with good ventilation. 50% of dry raw materials are obtained. The shelf life is 5 years. Acorns are collected in the fall, when they ripen and fall, and are immediately dried, since mold appears in the pericarp when they are kept raw for a long time. Galls are collected in late summer, dried and stored in a dry place. Pharmacies dispense bark.

Chemical composition . The bark contains catechin tannins (0.4%), free gallic and ellagic acids, halotannins (10-20%), quercetin, phlobafen, resins, pectin substances (6%), sugars (levulin and others), proteins, mucus, starch and mineral substances. Acorns contain starch (40%), tannins (5-8%), fatty oil (5%), sugars, essential oil, proteins and quercite. Galls contain a considerable amount of tannin.

Pharmacological properties and use. Rock oak bark is used as an anti-inflammatory, astringent and anti-putrefactive agent for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, pharynx and larynx, for gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontitis, flux, gastritis, for gastric bleeding, diarrhea, enteritis and diseases of the liver and spleen, for rickets, prolapse of the rectum and tuberculosis, diseases of the lymph nodes, skin diseases (eczema, cracks, frostbite, burns, etc.), as well as poisoning by mushrooms, alkaloids, and salts of copper, lead, and tin. In gynecological practice, a bark decoction is used for douching in cervical and vaginal ulcers, vulvovaginitis, and ulcerative colpitis; taken internally with excessive menstruation. Burns are treated with a decoction of galls. Acorns are used in diseases of the digestive tract, as well as as a substitute for coffee.

Medicinal forms and applications .

Internally – infusion of oak bark (1 teaspoon of bark per 400 ml of cold boiled water, infuse for 6-8 hours) 2-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day;

bark decoction (10 g or 1 tablespoon of bark per 200 ml of boiling water) 1 tablespoon 2-3 times a day;

bark infusion (1 tablespoon of bark per 200 ml of boiling water, boil for 1 min., infuse for 10 min.) 2 glasses per day for poisoning;

acorn coffee (1 teaspoon of roasted until red and crushed acorns per 1 cup of boiling water) 1 cup a day (in three doses) with chronic intestinal catarrh (diarrhea).

Externally – decoction of the bark (20 g of bark per 200 ml of boiling water) for rinsing (in addition to this decoction of medicinal sage leaves, rinse the mouth with dental fluxes);

bark decoction (40 g of bark per 200 ml of boiling water) for lotions for burns;

decoction of galls (full handful of galls per 2 liters of boiling water, boil for 10 minutes) for lotions for burns;

bark decoction (20 g of bark per 2 liters of boiling water, boil for 10 min., strain) for douching;

bark decoction (50-100 g of bark per 1 liter of boiling water) for local baths with excessive sweating of the feet;

a decoction of a full handful of bark in 2 liters of boiling water is added to a full bath, which is taken in case of eczema or general weakening of the body. , boil in the morning over low heat, squeeze while still warm and pour into a jar).

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