Hawthorn torticollis – hawthorn torticollis

Crataegus curvisepala (Crataegus curvisepala); hawthorn

 

A tree 1-4 m tall or a shrub of the rose family. Branches — with axillary spines up to 1 cm long. The leaves are noticeably lighter from below, with scattered short-hairy, hairy-ciliated plates at the edges. The lower leaves of the fruit-bearing shoots are solid, the ones following them are vaguely three-lobed, the upper ones are three-lobed, and the upper ones are 5-7-lobed, broadly ovate to rounded-rhombic. On infertile shoots, the leaves are lobed to separate, with two-lobed lower segments. The flowers are regular, bisexual, single-columned, 5-petalled, pale pink or almost white, collected in a complex shield. Fruits are apple-shaped, elongated-ellipsoidal or almost cylindrical, slightly pubescent, initially yellowish-brown, later reddish, with one stone. Blooms in May – June.

Spread. It grows on the edges of forests throughout the territory of Ukraine, except for the southern steppe regions; in the Crimea – in the mountains.

Procurement and storage . Flowers and fruits are used. Flowers (with or without leaves) are harvested at the beginning of flowering of the plant, when some of them have not yet opened. Dry in the shade. 18-20% of dry raw materials are obtained. The validity period is one year. Fruits are collected in the period of full ripening. Dry at a temperature of 50-60°. 40% of dry raw materials are obtained. The shelf life is 2 years. Flowers and fruits are sold by pharmacies.

Chemical composition . The flowers contain hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, saponaretin, orientin, homoorientin, vitexin rhamnosides, phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic), amines (choline, acetylcholine, trimethylamine). The fruits contain organic acids, sugars, sorbitol, pectin substances (1.9-6.1%), ascorbic acid (18-100 mg %), B-carotene (0.4-2.7 mg %), vitamin K , phenolic compounds (anthocyanins – up to 1200 mg%, leucoanthocyanins – 400-1500 mg%, catechins, flavonols, phenolic acids, etc.), coumarins (0.7-3.4%), sterols, triterpenic acids (ursolic, oleanolic).

Pharmacological properties and use. Hawthorn galena products exhibit cardiotonic, antispasmodic, hypotensive, sedative and desensitizing effects. Hawthorn is able to increase the force of heart contractions, regulate blood pressure (increased – lowers, decreased – increases), reduce the excitability of the nervous system, cause deep, calm and long sleep, without causing states of mental depression after awakening. It should be noted that the directionality of the therapeutic effect of hawthorn products depends on the dosage. If small doses have a tonic effect on cardiac activity, then large doses are an excellent antispasmodic and sedative. Too large doses, 4-5 times larger than usually prescribed, cause excessive drowsiness and slowing of the pulse. Plant preparations are low-toxic, do not have cumulative properties and do not cause side effects. They are used for various diseases of the heart muscle, in particular, for coronary diseases, which are accompanied by symptoms of angina pectoris; with hypertensive disease, especially with its sclerotic and vegetative-nervous form; with arteriosclerosis, nervous and mental excitement, dizziness; in acute articular rheumatism, as well as in climacteric neurosis as a means that reduces the excitability of the nervous system and eliminates various painful symptoms characteristic of this period of women’s lives. Hawthorn flowers and fruits are used alone or in combination with other medicinal plants. Preference should be given to preparations made from the flowers of the plant (it is better to take fresh flowers), remembering that they are ineffective in decompensating the heart. which are accompanied by symptoms of angina pectoris; with hypertensive disease, especially with its sclerotic and vegetative-nervous form; with arteriosclerosis, nervous and mental excitement, dizziness; in acute articular rheumatism, as well as in climacteric neurosis as a means that reduces the excitability of the nervous system and eliminates various painful symptoms characteristic of this period of women’s lives. Hawthorn flowers and fruits are used alone or in combination with other medicinal plants. Preference should be given to preparations made from the flowers of the plant (it is better to take fresh flowers), remembering that they are ineffective in decompensating the heart. which are accompanied by symptoms of angina pectoris; with hypertensive disease, especially with its sclerotic and vegetative-nervous form; with arteriosclerosis, nervous and mental excitement, dizziness; in acute articular rheumatism, as well as in climacteric neurosis as a means that reduces the excitability of the nervous system and eliminates various painful symptoms characteristic of this period of women’s lives. Hawthorn flowers and fruits are used alone or in combination with other medicinal plants. Preference should be given to preparations made from the flowers of the plant (it is better to take fresh flowers), remembering that they are ineffective in decompensating the heart. in acute articular rheumatism, as well as in climacteric neurosis as a means that reduces the excitability of the nervous system and eliminates various painful symptoms characteristic of this period of women’s lives. Hawthorn flowers and fruits are used alone or in combination with other medicinal plants. Preference should be given to preparations made from the flowers of the plant (it is better to take fresh flowers), remembering that they are ineffective in decompensating the heart. in acute articular rheumatism, as well as in climacteric neurosis as a means that reduces the excitability of the nervous system and eliminates various painful symptoms characteristic of this period of women’s lives. Hawthorn flowers and fruits are used alone or in combination with other medicinal plants. Preference should be given to preparations made from the flowers of the plant (it is better to take fresh flowers), remembering that they are ineffective in decompensating the heart.

Medicinal forms and applications .

Internally – tincture of flowers (infuse 10 g of fresh flowers in 100 ml of 70% alcohol or strong vodka for 14 days, filter) 15-30 drops in a glass of water 3 times a day (when using the tincture as a sedative or desensitizing agent, the dose increase by 2-3 times);

infusion of flowers (5 g, or one tablespoon of dried flowers per 200 ml of boiling water) half a glass 2-3 times a day;

tincture of fruits (infuse 10 g of dry crushed fruits in 100 ml of 70% alcohol or strong vodka for 14 days, strain) 30-40 drops in a glass of water;

fruit infusion (15 g or a tablespoon of dry crushed fruit per 200 ml of boiling water) half or a third of a glass 2-3 times a day;

fruit extract (25 g of crushed fruit per 100 ml of boiling water, boil until the volume is reduced by half) 40 drops 3 times a day;

one tablespoon with the top of a mixture of Hawthorn flowers (10 g), common nettle grass (20 g), sweet marjoram (20 g), gray blackberry leaves (25 g) and dried marsh flower grass (15 g) is infused for 10 minutes. on 200 ml of boiling water and drink 1 glass 3 times a day for irritability, hysterical fits, menopause;

one tablespoon of a mixture of flowers and fruits of Hawthorn, horsetail grass, white mistletoe, garlic cloves (30 g each), arnica mountain flowers (10 g) and yarrow grass (40 g) is infused with 200 ml of boiling water and drunk quarter glasses 4 times a day for hypertension;

three tablespoons of a mixture of flowers and leaves of Hawthorn (20 g), rhizomes with roots of valerian (20 g), common nettle grass (20 g), common thyme (5 g), common motherwort (5 g), leaves of lemon balm (10 g), peppermint (5 g), ordinary hop cones (5 g), spike lavender flowers (5 g), spring heather grass (5 g) and lily of the valley leaves) (5 g) insist until cooled on 300 ml of boiling water and drink half a glass 3 times a day for cardiac neurosis (the collection is used in Bulgarian official medicine);

two tablespoons of a mixture of flowers and leaves of Hawthorn (30 g), horsetail grass (15 g), white mistletoe (30 g), black elder flowers (30 g), sweet kelp (5 g), lemon balm leaves (5 g), peppermint (5 g), naberus garden herb (5 g), common nettle (25 g), tricolor violet (15 g), leaves of downy birch (15 g), rhizomes with roots of valerian medicinal (10 g) and small periwinkle herbs (15 g) pour 250 ml of boiling water, boil for 5 minutes, insist until cool, filter and drink during the day 3 times after meals for hypertension (the collection is used in Bulgarian official medicine).

From ready-made pharmacy products, tincture of hawthorn (Tinctura Crataegi) is used – 20-30 drops, liquid extract of hawthorn (Extractum Crataegi fluidum) – 20-30 drops 3-4 times a day before meals.

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