Ginkgo dvolopateve – ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo dvolopateve (Ginkgo biloba); ginkgo biloba

 

Deciduous gymnosperm plant of the Ginkgo family. A dioecious tree up to 25 m tall, a relict of the Tertiary period. Reaches the age of 1000 years. The leaves are long-petioled, leathery, fan-shaped, with fan-shaped veins, with one or more notches along the edge. Male flowers are ear-shaped, with numerous stamens; female – on long legs, branched at the end into two or more twigs, which end with a seed germ. The seeds are drupe, similar to a yellow plum, with a fleshy shell. Blooms in May.

Distribution . Comes from China. Cultivated in botanical gardens and parks as an ornamental plant.

Procurement and storage . Leaves and fruits are used for medicinal purposes. Leaves (Folia Ginkgo bilobae) are collected throughout the growing season and even in autumn. After the first frosts, fallen seeds (Fructus Ginkgo) are collected, the core is separated from the fleshy shell (it has an unpleasant smell – the presence of butyric acid), washed and dried on sieves at room temperature.

The plant is unofficial .

Chemical composition. The leaves contain kaempferol, quercetin, ginkgetin, bilobetin and other flavonoids; amentoflavone (biflavonoid), nonacosan, hexacosanol, pinet; shikimic, linolenic, hinnic and hydroginkolic acids; lactones, terpenes, catechins, wax, starch, mannan, pentosan, B-sitosterol, fatty and essential oils. The fleshy shell of the seed contains butyric, valerian, propionic and ginkgolic acids and some toxic substances. The seed itself contains up to 13% protein, 68% starch, 3% fatty oil, in addition there are sugars, pentosan, arginine, sitosterol, phytosterol, asparagine, raffinose, xylan, carotene, ginkgetin, bilobole and ginol. The wood contains about 2.5% resin, 5% essential oil, and up to 0.5% a-sesamine. Pharmacological properties and use. Preparations from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have antispasmodic, vasodilating and bacteriostatic effects. It has been experimentally and clinically confirmed that they accelerate blood circulation in the peripheral and brain areas and contribute to the supply of oxygen to them, and do not show any side effects, do not affect blood pressure and the frequency of heart contractions and respiratory acts. It is prescribed as a vascular activator for arteriosclerotic angiopathy, diabetic vascular damage with the threat of gangrene, nicotine vascular damage in heavy smokers, insufficient blood supply to the brain, Raynaud’s disease (spasm of blood vessels in the extremities), and also bronchial asthma. Ginkgo biloba products are of particular importance in geriatrics, because their action begins slowly and lasts for a long time. There are no other herbal products with the same effect. It should be noted that these properties of Ginkgo biloba leaves were not known in Eastern medicine, it was used only as an anthelmintic and repellent. The seeds were more widely used in Chinese traditional medicine: they were used for cough, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis (the effect was also clinically confirmed), for constipation and as a sedative, externally for some skin diseases and as a cosmetic (infusion in oil or wine). The juice of the fleshy shell was used against scabies and pubic lice. Roasted or boiled seeds are eaten, they help digestion, but consumed in large quantities can cause poisoning. In China, the raw seeds were considered an antidote and anticarcinostatic (not experimentally confirmed). The extract from the fresh leaves of Ginkgo biloba is included in the galena products of Tebonin (Germany) and Ginkor (France). The seeds were more widely used in Chinese traditional medicine: they were used for cough, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis (the effect was also clinically confirmed), for constipation and as a sedative, externally for some skin diseases and as a cosmetic (infusion in oil or wine). The juice of the fleshy shell was used against scabies and pubic lice. Roasted or boiled seeds are eaten, they help digestion, but consumed in large quantities can cause poisoning. In China, the raw seeds were considered an antidote and anticarcinostatic (not experimentally confirmed). The extract from the fresh leaves of Ginkgo biloba is included in the galena products of Tebonin (Germany) and Ginkor (France). The seeds were more widely used in Chinese traditional medicine: they were used for cough, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis (the effect was also clinically confirmed), for constipation and as a sedative, externally for some skin diseases and as a cosmetic (infusion in oil or wine). The juice of the fleshy shell was used against scabies and pubic lice. Roasted or boiled seeds are eaten, they help digestion, but consumed in large quantities can cause poisoning. In China, the raw seeds were considered an antidote and anticarcinostatic (not experimentally confirmed). The extract from the fresh leaves of Ginkgo biloba is included in the galena products of Tebonin (Germany) and Ginkor (France). externally — for some skin diseases and as a cosmetic (infusion in oil or wine). The juice of the fleshy shell was used against scabies and pubic lice. Roasted or boiled seeds are eaten, they help digestion, but consumed in large quantities can cause poisoning. In China, the raw seeds were considered an antidote and anticarcinostatic (not experimentally confirmed). The extract from the fresh leaves of Ginkgo biloba is included in the galena products of Tebonin (Germany) and Ginkor (France). externally — for some skin diseases and as a cosmetic (infusion in oil or wine). The juice of the fleshy shell was used against scabies and pubic lice. Roasted or boiled seeds are eaten, they help digestion, but consumed in large quantities can cause poisoning. In China, the raw seeds were considered an antidote and anticarcinostatic (not experimentally confirmed). The extract from the fresh leaves of Ginkgo biloba is included in the galena products of Tebonin (Germany) and Ginkor (France).

Medicinal forms and applications.

Internally – a decoction (15 g of dry leaves per 200 ml of water, boil for 3 minutes, infuse for 10 minutes), drink a third of a glass three times a day for cerebral vascular sclerosis in the elderly and venous insufficiency of the legs, varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

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