Name: Valerian officinalis – valeriana likarska (harvesting and storage)
Valerian medicinal – Valeriana officinalis Ls I. The Ukrainian name is valeriana likarska, popular names are maun, odolyan, marian, aromatic; damn potion, damn rib, earthen incense.
Valerian family – Valerianaceae.
For medicinal purposes, rhizomes with roots are used.
Under the name of medicinal valerian, a number of types of valerian with medicinal value are combined: c. high – V. exaltata M i k a n, c. shiny – V. nitida K g e u e r, c. Shooting – V. stolonifera С z e rn, found throughout Ukraine – in swamps, meadows, forests and forest edges; in. Russian – V. rossica S mirn, occasionally found only in the Sumy and Kharkov regions; in. Don – V. tanaitica W o g o s c h, (found only along the Seversky Donets River within the Kharkov and Voroshilovgrad regions); in. Grossheim – V. Grossheimit W about s with h, growing among shrubs and forest glades only in the Crimea; in. Hill – V. collina Wallr. (F. angustifolia Tausch) and c. Elderberry – V. sambucifolia M ik and n, distributed mainly in the Carpathians on the slopes and floodplains.
These are perennial herbaceous plants, with short (3-4 cm long and up to 4 cm thick), vertical, cylindrical, brown rhizomes. Numerous, thin, long roots depart from the rhizomes. The stems are ribbed, hollow, glabrous, slightly rough at the base, often with a ring of white hairs in the internodes. Leaves opposite, pinnate, with 6-8 (11) pairs of leaflets or segments, lower ones with longish petioles, upper ones with short ones. Basal leaves of vegetative shoots with 4-5 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are funnel-shaped, sympetalous. The calyx is inconspicuous, with fruits it turns into a tuft. The fruits are achenes 2.2-3.8 cm long and 0.5-1 mm thick, with five convex ribs and one rib on the flat side. Valerian blooms in May – June. The fruits ripen in July-August. Plants have a specific valerian smell.
The reserves of raw materials are large. Tens of tons can be harvested annually, however, due to the drainage and plowing of river floodplains and the replacement of natural forests with artificial plantations, the number of valerian is declining. The main blanks are produced in the Transcarpathian, Lvov, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Vinnitsa, Cherkasy, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Poltava, Kharkiv regions.
The average annual harvesting of rhizomes and roots of wild-growing valerian in the republic for three years (1974-1976) amounted to 1.7 tons.
The plant has been introduced into industrial culture at the state farms of Soyuzlekrasprom, and the procurement of raw materials in nature is gradually reduced. In Ukraine, they mainly grow brilliant valerian, c. high, in runaway and c. Russian.
Until now, the pharmacopoeia does not distinguish between valerian species, although they differ significantly in a number of ways (appearance, habitats, areas of distribution, content and localization of essential oil in organs, biological activity and yield), which should be taken into account when cultivating and using them in medicine. .
In Ukraine, in the same places where medicinal valerian grows, there are valerian that have no medicinal value, which, therefore, cannot be collected. These are smaller (from 10 to 60 cm tall) plants, without a valerian smell. Of these, it is necessary to point out the whole-leaved valerian Valeriana simplicifolia Kabath., outwardly somewhat reminiscent of elderberry valerian, which inexperienced collectors can falsely collect instead of the following days.
The poisonous roots of the medicinal valerian are a bit similar to the roots of valerian – Alexitoxieum officinale (Moench) S t. L age g. from the family of gossips, the admixture of which in raw materials is very dangerous. In terms of flowers and leaves, this plant has nothing to do with valerian. The roots of the gossamer are also recognizable upon close examination: they are distinguished by a lighter color and the presence of creeping rhizomes. They themselves have no smell, but, being together with valerian for some time, they absorb the valerian smell, which, however, should not mislead sorters and graders. The very poisonous rhizome of hellebore Lobel – Veratrum lobelianum B e g nh is easily distinguished by cord-like adventitious roots of light color. According to pinnately dissected leaves, it looks very much like valerian meadowsweet – Filipendula ulmaria Maxim., but this plant is well distinguished by its cream-coloured, separating-petalled flowers in panicles. The rhizome of the meadowsweet is creeping, dark brown in color. Collectors sometimes falsely collect instead of medicinal valerian hemp stem – Eupatonum cannabinit L., resembling them in leaves, inflorescences and pink flowers, but this plant does not have rhizomes, and the root is strong cylindrical.
Harvest rhizomes with roots in the fall (September-October) after seeding plants or early spring at the beginning of regrowth (April). They dig them with shovels, shake off the ground, cut off the above-ground parts with knives and immediately quickly wash them in cold water (for large workpieces, special drums are used). Thick rhizomes are cut lengthwise.
After preliminary drying for 1-2 days in the open air, the raw materials are dried in attics under an iron roof or under sheds with good ventilation, laying out a thin layer (up to 5-7 cm) on paper or cloth and stirring occasionally. It is better to dry in dryers at a temperature of 35-40 °. The yield of dry raw materials is 25%.
According to GF-X Art. 583, GOST 1995-55 raw material consists of short, hollow, separated by longitudinal partitions of rhizomes, whole or cut lengthwise into 2-4 parts, and numerous thin, long roots. Rhizomes and roots outside from light brown to dark brown, whitish inside. The smell is strong, fragrant (valerian). The taste is spicy, sweetish-bitter. Humidity is not higher than 16%. In raw materials, no more than (percent) is allowed: rhizomes with remnants of stems up to 2 cm long – 3, roots separated from rhizomes – 20; rhizomes without roots – 4; organic impurities – 1, mineral – 3.
Ash content should not exceed 14%, and extractives should not be less than 20%.
Raw materials are packed in bales of 50, 75 and 100 kg. It is stored packed in the group of essential oil raw materials in dry, well-ventilated areas on pallets. Storage period up to 3 years. Re-control is not performed.
According to FS 42-568-72, fresh raw materials of rhizomes with roots of cultivated valerian are harvested to obtain cardiovalen. Rhizomes of light brown color up to 4 cm long with roots up to 40 cm long. The color of rhizomes and roots is brownish on the outside, white in the fracture. The smell is greasy, specific. The taste is bitter-sweet. Humidity is not higher than 85%. In raw materials, no more than: rhizomes with remnants of stems up to 1 cl long – 3, organic and mineral impurities – 1% each. Extractive substances should be at least 25%. The total ash content is allowed no more than 14%, including ash insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid – 10%.
Packed in open boxes or baskets and processed for no more than 3 days.
Rhizomes and roots contain an essential oil (which includes an ester of borneol and isovaleric acid), free valeric acid, borneol, Valeria alkaloids and hatinin, tannins. Used as a sedative and antispasmodic. Used to make infusions, tinctures, extracts, briquettes, sedatives, stomachic and carminative preparations. They are included in a number of complex products and are prescribed for neurosis, hysteria, insomnia, as a sedative.