Belladonna officinalis (veterinary practice)

Belladonna medicinal – atropa belladonna l.


Common names: sleepy dope, belladonna, rubella, datura, mad berry, mad cherry, sleepy dope.

Botanical characteristic. Solanaceae family. A perennial herbaceous plant with a multi-headed rhizome, from which numerous branched roots depart. The stems are forked-branched, erect, pubescent, green, often with a purple tint, 1.5-2 m high. The leaves are alternate, ovate, pointed, entire, dark green in color. The flowers are large, solitary, sitting on short pedicels in the axils of the leaves, brown-violet. The fruit is a black, shiny large berry. Blossoms in July-August, bears fruit from July (color table II-1).

Spreading. It grows wild in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Ukraine, southern Armenia and southeastern Azerbaijan. Introduced into culture in the Krasnodar Territory. Grows on mountain slopes, in beech forests, sometimes singly, in groups or small thickets between bushes, along edges and along forest roads, on fertile forest soils.

Medicinal raw materials. Leaves, grass, less often roots and stems are used. They are dried in well-ventilated rooms (attics, sheds) or under a canopy in the open air, on verandas, hanging by the lower parts of the stems, in late autumn in dryers at a temperature of 40 ° C. Store for 2 years in a dry, well-ventilated area, separate from other plants, under lock and key, as it is very poisonous. After collecting and drying, wash your hands thoroughly, and do not eat during work.

Chemical composition. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloids hyoscyamine (atropine) and scopolamine, as well as mucus, sugar, salts, various acids, starch, protein and other substances.

pharmacological properties. Belladonna alkaloids have an M-anticholinergic effect, which explains the mechanism of action of the plant (for more details, see Belena),

Application. In veterinary practice, belladonna products are recommended as analgesics, antispasmodics and anti-inflammatory drugs for gastrointestinal diseases, duodenal ulcers, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, spasms of the intestines and urinary tract, as well as other diseases accompanied by spasms of smooth muscles of the internal organs.

Belladonna leaves are administered orally in the form of an infusion (1:40 or 1:50) in doses: cattle 20-40 g, horses 10-30, small cattle 5-15, pigs 2-10, dogs 0.2-1 G.

Official products: belladonna (belladonna) extract and tincture.

Thick belladonna extract – Extractum Belladonnae. A dense mass of dark brown color, a peculiar smell. Contains 1.4-1.6% alkaloids. Dry belladonna extract is a brown or light brown powder with a slight odor and a peculiar taste. Hygroscopic. Contains 0.7-0.8% alkaloids. They are used as antispasmodic and analgesic agents for spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, constipation due to increased intestinal tone, hypersecretion of gastric juice. Doses of thick extract inside: horses 0.5-4 g, cattle 1-5, small cattle and pigs 0.1-0.5, dogs 0.02-0.03 g 2-3 times every day. Due to the lower content of alkaloids, the dose of the dry extract (in relation to the thick one) is 2 times higher.

Belladonnae tincture – Tinctura Belladonnae. Transparent liquid of greenish or reddish-brown color with a peculiar smell and bitter taste. Prepared in a concentration of 1:10 on 40% alcohol from the leaves of the plant. Contains 0.027-0.033% alkaloids. Doses inside: horses 10-30 g, cattle 20-40, sheep 2-5, pigs 1-3, dogs 0.2-1 g. bellataminol, besalol.

Becarbon (extract of belladonna 0.01 g, sodium bicarbonate 0.3 g) is used for intestinal spasms, increased secretion of gastric juice. Doses inside dogs: 1/2-1 tablet 2-3 times every day. Bepasal (belladonna extract 0.012 g, phenyl salicylate 0.3 g and papaverine hydrochloride 0.03 g) is prescribed for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (spastic colitis and constipation, hyperacid gastric catarrh, etc.). For dogs, take 1/2 tablet 2-3 times daily. Bellalgin (Belladonna extract 0.015 g, analgin and anestezin 0.25 g each, sodium bicarbonate 0.1) is used similarly to bepasal. Besalol (belladonna extract 0.01 g, phenyl salicylate 0.3 g) is used in the same way as bepasal. Bellataminol (phenobarbital 20 mg, ergotamine tartrate 0.3, belladonna alkaloids 0.1 mg) is similar in composition and action to bellaspon produced in Czechoslovakia.

In plants of the nightshade family – belladonna, henbane, various types of dope – alkaloids atropine and scopolamine are contained.

Atropine sulfate – Atropini suifas. White crystalline or granular powder, odorless, soluble in water and alcohol. It has M-anticholinergic activity, that is, it blocks M-cholinergic receptors, making them insensitive to the mediator acetylcholine. In this regard, atropine reduces the secretion of the salivary, gastric, bronchial and sweat glands, pancreas, increases the heart rate, lowers the tone of smooth muscle organs (abdominal cavity, bronchi), dilates the pupil and increases intraocular pressure, disrupts accommodation, etc. In large doses poisonous. Assign inside and subcutaneously. Doses of atropine under the skin: horses 0.02-0.08 g, cattle 0.01-0.06, small cattle and pigs 0.0.05-0.05, dogs 0.002-0.03, cats and chickens 0.001 -0.003. Store on list A.

Scopolamine – Scopolaminum. Colorless transparent crystals or white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water. In terms of its physiological activity, it is close to atropine, but acts faster and for a shorter time. Doses under the skin: horses and cattle 0.001-0.003, small cattle and pigs 0.0002-0.0005, dogs 0.0001-0.0003, cats 0.0001-0.0002. Store according to list A, in a place protected from light.

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