Iowan fragrant ( azhgon , Indian cumin ) – trachyspermum ammi l.
Botanical characteristic. Umbrella family. An annual herbaceous plant with a thin tap root. The stem is erect, cylindrical, furrowed, branched from the base, 40-60 cm high, and up to 1 m on irrigated lands. The leaves are alternate, thrice or twice pinnately dissected into linear-filamentous lobes. The flowers are small white, collected in a complex umbrella. The fruits are ovoid, ribbed two-seedlings with an aromatic smell and a sharp bitter taste.
Blossoms in June-July, fruits ripen in August-September.
Spreading. The homeland of the plant is India, in the USSR it is cultivated in Central Asia. It grows on loose sandy, calcareous soils.
Medicinal raw materials. Use the fruits of the plant, the collection of which begins when they turn brown in the central umbrellas, in the phase between waxy and full maturity (approximately in October).
Chemical composition. In all parts of the plant there is an essential oil, but its greatest abundance is in fruits (2-11%), the main component of which is thymol. The composition of the essential oil also includes a- and b-pinene, b-terpinene, P-cymol, etc. In fruits, in addition, there are 25-32% fatty oil and within 16% protein.
Pharmacological properties and application.The main biologically active substance of the plant is thymol, found in the essential oil. It has antiseptic, bactericidal and antihelminthic properties, local anesthetic effect. It is used to disinfect the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, pharynx, sometimes inside with diarrhea and flatulence in order to reduce fermentation in the intestines, externally with fungal skin diseases and actinomycosis. After oral administration, it moderately enhances the secretion of the glands and activates intestinal motility. Large doses can cause diarrhea and, in dogs, vomiting. After absorption, a non-cardinal increase in cardiac activity, deepening of breathing, excitation of the animal with subsequent depression of cardiac activity and the central nervous system are noted. It is prescribed as an antimicrobial agent for limited skin lesions with streptococci, staphylococci, fungi in the form of 5-10% alcohol or oil solutions. As an anthelmintic, thymol is effective against hookworm and strongylate. For this purpose, it is administered orally on an empty stomach, and after 1 hour a laxative is prescribed.
Doses inside: horses 6-20 g, pigs 2-5, dogs 0.5-2 g.