Adonis spring – adonis vernalis l.
Popular names: spring adonis, Montenegrin, starodubka, yellow flower.
Botanical characteristic. Buttercup family. A perennial wild herbaceous plant with a thick shortened rhizome. Stems are simple, slightly branched, densely leafy at the top. Stem leaves sessile, alternate, palmately dissected into numerous lobules. The flowers are large, solitary, golden yellow. Blooms in April – May (color table. I – 1).
Spreading. It grows in steppe meadows, along forest edges and on rocky slopes in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the RSFSR, in Ukraine, in the Ciscaucasia, Crimea, in the black earth steppes of the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia.
Medicinal raw materials. The aerial part of the plant is used, which is cut off at the level of green leaves in the period from the beginning of flowering to shedding of fruits. (It is necessary to spare the root system!) After harvesting, the grass is immediately dried. Store raw materials according to list A for one year. The main harvesting areas: Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk regions, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukraine, the North Caucasus, the Volga region. According to the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, grass should have no more than 13% moisture, and plants that have lost their normal color should have no more than 3%. 1 g of grass should contain 50-60 ICE, or 6.3-8 KED.
Of the other species, Siberian and Amur Adonis are used. Siberian Adonis – A. sibiricus Part. differs from spring in larger leaves and small flowers. It occurs along forest edges, in clearings, among light forests and shrubs of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Irkutsk and Chelyabinsk regions, the Buryat ASSR, in the northeastern regions of the European part of the USSR. It is a substitute for spring adonis, but has a weaker biological activity. Adonis Amur – A. amurensis Rgl. et Radde grows in the Far East (Primorye, Amur, Sakhalin). It differs from other species in greater toxicity and early flowering.
In the mountains of Central Asia, there is Adonis Turkestani, which is close in biological activity to spring Adonis.
Chemical composition. Spring Adonis is rich in biologically active substances, the main of which are cardiac glycosides (cimarin and adonitoxin) and saponins, also K-strophanthin, adonivernit flavone glycoside, etc.
pharmacological properties.Adonis and its products are classified as cardiovascular, cardiotonic, sedative and diuretic. By the nature of the action, they are similar to the digitalis group. Under their influence, the work of the heart improves: the rate of heart contractions slows down, systole increases and diastole lengthens, stroke volume increases. Due to the slowing of atrioventricular conduction and a longer diastolic pause, the interval R – Q and T – P of the electrocardiogram increases. Adonis preparations constrict blood vessels, which leads to an increase in blood pressure and, as a result, blood circulation improves. Lowering the excitability of the central nervous system, adonis acts as a sedative and anticonvulsant. Unlike foxglove, it has only non-cordial cumulation, as it is quickly destroyed in the body.
Application: decompensated heart defects, long-term persistent arrhythmias, conduction disorders, functional neurosis, kidney disease, accompanied by signs of insufficiency of the cardiovascular system. Adonis herb along with valerian was successfully prescribed to horses and cattle with myocardial dystrophy and decompensated heart defects.
medicinal forms. Adonis grass – Nerba Adonidis vernalis. Assign inside in the form of boluses or infusion: horses 5-10 g of grass, cattle 5-15, small cattle and pigs 1-3, dogs 0.2-0.5, cats and chickens 0.1-0.2 G.
Adonisid – Adonisidum. Aqueous extract from adonis grass, maximally purified from ballast substances and saponins. Transparent, slightly yellowish liquid of a peculiar smell, bitter taste. 1 ml of the product should contain 23-27 ICE, or 2.7-3.5 KED. Doses inside: horses and cattle 20-40 ml, small cattle 1-10, pigs 0.5-8, dogs 0.3-4, cats 0.2-1, chickens 0.2-0.5 ml ; under the skin and intramuscularly: horses 1-10 ml, cattle 1-5, small cattle 1-3, pigs 0.2-2, dogs 0.05-1, chickens 0.05-3 ml.
Dry Adonis extract – Adonidis siccum. Brownish-yellow amorphous powder from which tablets are prepared. Indications for use are the same as for adonizide.
Cordiazide – Cordiasidum. A mixture of adonizide with an equal amount of cordiamine. Clear, yellowish liquid. They are recommended orally as a tonic for the cardiovascular system, in approximately the same doses as adonizide.
Rp.: Infusi herbae Abonidis vernalis 5.0–200.0 Themisali 10.0 Sirupi simplicis 30.0 M. f. mixtura
DS Inside with food, 1 tablespoon 3 times every day.