Balactidiosis is a protozoan disease characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, severe course and high mortality with late therapy.
The causative agent – balantidia – belongs to the class of ciliates, occurs in a vegetative form and in the form of cysts that are stable in the external environment. Fistulas are natural carriers of balantidia.
Human infection occurs when balantidia enter the digestive tract, where they can exist for a long time (in the small intestine) without causing disease. In some infected individuals, balantidia penetrate tissues, causing hemorrhages, necrosis, and ulcers. They have irregular outlines, jagged and thickened edges, an uneven bottom, covered with a bloody-purulent coating. Perforation of ulcers, peritonitis may occur.
Acute forms of the disease are characterized by fever, symptoms of general intoxication and signs of intestinal damage (abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, tenesmus is possible). In the stool there is an admixture of mucus and blood.
Spasm and soreness of the large intestine, enlargement of the liver are characteristic. Sigmoidoscopy reveals a focal infiltrative-ulcerative process. In severe cases, general intoxication, high fever, stools up to 20 times a day with an admixture of mucus and blood with a putrid odor are noted. Patients quickly lose weight, sometimes symptoms of irritation of the peritoneum are found.
With sigmoidoscopy, extensive ulcerative lesions are established. In chronic balantidiasis, the symptoms of intoxication are mild, the body temperature is normal, the stool is up to 2-3 times a day, liquid, with mucus, sometimes with an admixture of blood. On palpation, pain is predominantly in the blind and ascending colon. With sigmoidoscopy, there may be typical ulcerative changes.
The diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of parasites in the stool.
Etiotropic products are used in the form of 2-3 five-day cycles. Assign monomycin 0.15 g 4 times a day, oxytetracycline 0.4 g 4 times a day, metronidazole 0.5 g 3 times a day. The interval between cycles is 5 days. The prognosis for modern therapy is favorable. Without the use of antiparasitic therapy, mortality reached 10-12%.
Compliance with hygiene measures when caring for pigs. Identification and treatment of people with balantidiasis. General preventive measures are the same as for dysentery.