Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) belongs to the herpesvirus family. It is the most common causative agent of congenital infections in babies. Infection with cytomegalovirus occurs both in utero and in other ways (sexual, alimentary, airborne). In people with normal immunity, as a rule, there is a long latent course of the disease. Sometimes CMV infection occurs with uncharacteristic symptoms such as general malaise, fatigue, fever, and lymph node involvement. In immunocompromised individuals, cytomegalovirus can cause severe life-threatening symptoms (pneumonia, hepatitis, myo- and pericarditis, meningitis, encephalitis, etc.).
Both primary and recurrent CMV infection carried by the mother leads to premature birth, reduced birth weight, damage to the liver, lungs, and central nervous system. Approximately 12-30% of these babies die. Survivors in 90% of cases have late complications – hearing loss, speech disorders, atrophy of the optic nerves, microcephaly, seizures, paresis and paralysis.
Based on this, it is necessary to emphasize the mandatory examination for the presence of cytomegalovirus infection when planning pregnancy.
For diagnosis, a cytological study, a molecular diagnostic study (PCR), enzyme immunoassays (determination of immunoglobulins of classes G, M and A in blood serum) are used.