Most often, domestic dogs bite, less often cats and wild animals (foxes, wolves). The bites of animals infected with rabies (an extremely severe viral disease) are of great danger. The rabies virus is excreted in the saliva of sick animals and enters the body of the victim from bites through a wound in the skin or mucous membrane. Most animal bites should be considered dangerous in the sense of rabies infection, because. at the time of the bite, the animal may not have external signs of the disease. In dogs, rabies is more often manifested by strong excitation, dilated pupils,
a feeling of anxiety. The dog can run away from home, pounce without barking and bite people and animals, swallow all kinds of inedible objects. Strong salivation and vomiting are observed. Rabies is not an inherent symptom of the disease.
First aid . When providing first aid to a victim of an animal bite, one should not strive to immediately stop the bleeding, because. it helps to remove the animal’s saliva from the wound. The wound is washed with soapy water, the skin within it is treated with an antiseptic solution (iodine alcohol solution, potassium permanganate solution, ethyl alcohol, etc.), and then applied sterile
bandage. The victim is taken to a trauma center or other medical institution. The issue of vaccination against rabies is decided by the doctor.
Poisonous animals are animals that constantly or periodically contain substances that are toxic to humans and representatives of other species. There are active and passive poisonous animals. Actively poisonous animals have specialized glands that produce poison that serves to protect against enemies. In many poisonous animals, the poisonous glands are associated with a wounding apparatus; such animals also use poison to attack the victim. In passive-poisonous animals, toxic substances are contained in various tissues or organs.
Of the poisonous animals dangerous to human health in our country, some types of snakes can be distinguished. Karakurts, scorpions, tarantulas and some other species of arthropods are also poisonous. Of the inhabitants of the aquatic environment, certain types of marine fish are poisonous (for example: stingrays, sea dragons), coelenterates (jellyfish-cross, jellyfish Cyanea, cornea jellyfish). Freshwater fish of a number of species that are traditionally non-poisonous (for example: pike, pike perch, perch, burbot, eel) are capable of acquiring poisonous properties under certain conditions. Poisonous properties are possessed by some amphibians (green and common toads, or gray, toad frog, also salamander). Poisonous insects include bees, wasps, bumblebees, hornets, many species of ants, oak silkworm caterpillars. Bees, wasps, bumblebees, hornets produce a poison similar in composition, having both local and general toxic effects. Only females are poisonous. The poison of ants and oak silkworm caterpillars causes toxic dermatitis.
When bitten by poisonous insects (bees, wasps, bumblebees, etc.), first of all, you will need to remove the sting with a vial filled with poison with tweezers, and then rinse the wound with alcohol. Cold (ice) is recommended for the bite site. In severe intoxication, antihistamine products, corticosteroids, vitamin products, and plenty of fluids are indicated; with multiple bites – circular infiltration novocaine blockade of bite sites. In severe cases, the victim will need to be urgently hospitalized.
First aid. It begins with immediate and vigorous suction for 15-20 minutes of the contents of the wound, while not forgetting to constantly spit out the sucked liquid. Then, if possible, the wound is treated with a solution of iodine, alcohol, brilliant green (brilliant green). After that, they provide a fixed position of the bitten limb, create peace for the victim. He will need to be taken to a medical institution as soon as possible, where he will be provided with appropriate assistance.
It is categorically contraindicated for a victim of a snake bite to make skin incisions at the site of the bite, to apply a hemostatic tourniquet; do not give alcohol inside, inject potassium permanganate or other oxidizing agents into the bite area, cauterize the bite site. All this not only does not weaken or delay the action of snake venom, but, on the contrary, significantly enhances it, contributing to the occurrence of complications.
Personal prevention of snake bites can be ensured by wearing high shoes (leather or rubber boots), tight clothing, a thorough inspection of parking lots and lodging for the night. Since snakes are traditionally non-aggressive and bite humans only in self-defense, bites are most often experienced by people trying to either catch or kill a snake (traditionally these are children and adolescents). Therefore, persons traveling to the territory where snakes can live should know the peculiarities of snake behavior and, most likely, have specific “antigyurza” and “anticobra” serums with them, which will need to be administered no later than 30 minutes after a snake bite.
One of the most dangerous representatives of arachnids. The habitat of the karakurt covers the southern regions of the country. Sometimes karakurts are also found in the Moscow region. The venom of the karakurt is 15 times stronger than the venom of a rattlesnake and 50 times stronger than the venom of a tarantula. Moreover, both young animals and males are poisonous. A small, dark, quickly disappearing spot appears at the site of the bite. After a few minutes, edema develops, severe pain is detected, spreading to the limbs, lower back, chest, abdomen, and there is a sharp tension in the abdominal muscles. In the future, chills begin, body temperature rises, profuse sweating, marked arousal, hallucinations, fear of death, twitching of various muscles, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath and its sudden stop are possible.
First aid for a bite of a karakurt includes squeezing out the first drops of blood from the wound and sucking the poison out by mouth (the person providing assistance should not have fresh injuries in the oral cavity). The wound should be treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. Cold is applied locally. The affected limb is immobilized. In case of respiratory failure, artificial respiration is performed. In all cases, hospitalization of the sick person and the introduction of a special anti-karakurt serum (in the subscapular region, and in case of severe intoxication intravenously) are necessary.
They live in the zones of deserts and semi-deserts of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, in the mountainous places of the Southern Crimea, in the Caucasus. Pain, redness, swelling are found at the bite site (several bubbles filled with liquid appear). The victim has nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, chills, headache, dizziness. After 15-30 minutes after the bite, convulsions, an increase in shortness of breath are possible. Blood pressure first rises, then falls. After the improvement of the condition, the resumption of symptoms of poisoning is likely. In severe cases, respiratory arrest may occur.
First aid includes squeezing the first drops of blood from the wound and suctioning the poison by mouth, washing the wound with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, local cold and immobilization of the affected limb, introducing anti-scorpion serum (in its absence, anti-karakurt or anti-cobra serum) subcutaneously, into the subscapular region.
It is a permanent inhabitant of the desert and semi-desert regions of the country. At the site of the bite, its trace is visible, acute pain, redness, widespread swelling are noted. The victim experiences heaviness throughout the body, drowsiness, apathy. Arterial pressure is initially increased, then decreases. After 5-6 hours the condition improves.
First aid is to suck out the poison. It is advisable to introduce anti-karakurt serum, washing the wound with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. Local cold, immobilization of the affected part of the body. As in all cases of injury from a poisonous animal, it will be necessary to ensure hospitalization of the sick person.
Actively poisonous animals conditionally include stingrays (sea cat and red stingray, which live in the Black and Azov Seas, also in southern Primorye) and sea dragons (live in the Black and Baltic Seas). Their poison, getting into the body of the victim (injured) from a special stabbing apparatus (stabbing fins, spikes on the tail or gill cover), traditionally causes severe pain. The skin within the wound turns pale, then redness, cyanosis, and swelling (sometimes common) are found. Within a few hours, symptoms of intoxication increase: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, chills, fever, sometimes delirium, convulsions, loss of consciousness.
Among marine poisonous animals, some representatives of the coelenterates pose a certain danger. These are all kinds of jellyfish: the cross-shaped jellyfish (it lives mainly in the seas of the Far East and in the Amur Bay), the root-mouthed jellyfish (inhabitant of the Black and Okhotsk Seas), the Cyaneya jellyfish (inhabitant of the coastal zone of the North Pacific Ocean and the seas of the Arctic Ocean).
The clinical picture of poisoning caused by these jellyfish is similar: burning, pain, swelling, redness, urticaria, pain in the chest, abdomen, suffocation, pain in the joints and muscles, muscle twitching, muscle weakness.
First aid: washing the affected area with running water and soap. Locally – nourishing fat-based cream.
Poisonous properties freshwater fish (most of them are objects of fishing) acquire when they begin to eat food with poisonous properties or containing substances that acquire these properties during digestion. For example, some fish (pike, pike perch, burbot, perch, eel) become poisonous under certain conditions. Eating these fish causes acute poisoning – Yuksovsko-Sartlan disease. At the same time (after 10-68 hours after eating fish), a person experiences sharp pains in the muscles of the limbs, lower back, and chest. The pains are aggravated by the slightest movement, in severe cases they spread to almost all skeletal muscles. There are muscle weakness, dry mouth, sometimes vomiting. Urine red-brown (in severe cases almost black). The pain attack lasts from 3 hours to 4 days. then the pain subsides, the urine acquires a normal color. In severe cases, acute renal failure develops.
First aid includes gastric lavage through a tube, plenty of fluids, warmth. When the first signs of poisoning appear, the patient should be hospitalized.
Other types of aquatic organisms.
There are known cases of poisoning when eating certain types of echinoderms, in particular holothurians (sea cucumbers), sea urchins and stars. Poisoning occurs when eating edible species of holothurians (trepangs) with incompletely removed entrails. The poison of sea urchins and stars causes mainly a local reaction – burning, pain, itching, swelling at the injection site with specialized poisonous needles. The potent poison tetrodotoxin, which affects the central and peripheral nervous system of a person, is found in the internal organs, eggs, milk and skin of many fish of the pufferfish order, as well as in the eggs, milk and liver of some freshwater fish (for example: barbel, marinka) during the spawning period.
First aid in such cases is the same as in all cases of food poisoning.
Poisonous salamanders, toads, toads. Poison glands in these animals are located in various parts of the skin; when there is a threat of attack, the poisonous secret of these glands is ejected in the thinnest streams to the surface of the skin. Salamander venom is neurotoxic. Toad venom has a local irritating effect on the skin and the gastrointestinal tract (if a poisonous secretion gets inside), as well as a cardiotoxic effect.
First aid consists in washing the affected area with running water and soap and subsequently applying a layer of hydrocortisone ointment and anesthesin to this area. If the poison is ingested, gastric lavage through a probe, saline laxative, activated charcoal, heavy drinking, enveloping agents are indicated.