Tracheitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea. There are acute and chronic tracheitis.
Acute tracheitis is not often isolated; traditionally it occurs in combination with acute rhinitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis. The most common cause of acute tracheitis is a viral infection, rarely staphylococcus, streptococcus, etc. The development of tracheitis is promoted by inhalation of dry, cold or dusty air, irritating vapors and gases. Morphological changes in the trachea in acute tracheitis are characterized by edema, infiltration and hyperemia of the mucous membrane, on the plane of which accumulations of mucus can be found, in some cases (for example, with influenza) – petechial hemorrhages.
Chronic tracheitismay develop from an acute Often it occurs in people who abuse smoking and alcohol, also with congestion in the respiratory tract due to emphysema, heart disease, kidney disease; it is not often caused by chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity and within the sinuses. In chronic tracheitis, both hypertrophic and atrophic changes in the tracheal mucosa can be observed. Hypertrophic tracheitis is characterized by vasodilation and swelling of the mucous membrane, increased secretion of mucus and purulent sputum. With atrophy, the mucous membrane becomes thinner, acquires a grayish color, becomes smooth, shiny, sometimes covered with small crusts that cause a painful cough. Atrophic chronic tracheitis traditionally accompanies atrophy of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.
Acute tracheitis. Treatment should be focused primarily on the elimination of causative and contributing factors to the occurrence of tracheitis. The patient is prescribed mustard plasters on the chest, with symptoms of intoxication or the spread of the process to the lower parts of the respiratory tract – sulfanilamide products and antibiotics, incl. in the form of aerosols, with a painful cough – codeine, libexin, with difficult sputum discharge – expectorants – thermopsis grass, marshmallow root, licorice, etc., alkaline inhalations. The prognosis of uncomplicated acute tracheitis with timely treatment is traditionally favorable – after 1-2 weeks. recovery begins.
Chronic tracheitis. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic tracheitis are based on the same principles as in the acute process. In addition, in chronic tracheitis, oil-alkaline inhalations are used, as well as climatic treatment. The prognosis for recovery with timely and proper treatment is often favorable.